Category Archives: Geology

Six Metals that are Rarer than Gold

Rare Metals on DisplayThere are six metals in nature that are rarer than gold and possess their own unique properties. In this article, we will shed some light on these relatively unknown elements and their uses.

Ruthenium

In the 1840s, Russian chemist, Karl Ernst Claus, provided evidence for the existence of new element in platinum ore. This new element was then named after the ancient name of Russia, Ruthenia.

Ruthenium has a silver-like sheen. It is a hard metal with a melting point between 2300 to 2450 degrees Celsius and boiling point that ranges between 3900 to 4150 degrees Celsius. Ruthenium is a relatively non-reactive metal. It doesn’t dissolve in most acids, and reacts only with those metals that have similar chemical properties. At room temperature, it doesn’t react to air, but higher temperatures can make it reactive to oxygen.

In nature, it is mostly found in platinum ores. Ruthenium is also obtained as a byproduct of  nickel refining. This platinum metal is so rare that its abundance is only 0.0004 parts per million in  nature.

Uses

Ruthenium is used in the production of different alloys due to its hardness and inertness to oxygen. Electrical contacts used to measure extreme temperatures usually contain ruthenium alloys.

Palladium

It resembles ruthenium in appearance, but has vastly different physical and chemical properties For instance, unlike ruthenium, it dissolves in aqua regia. Like other platinum group elements, palladium is mostly found in copper and nickel ore, however, small deposits of uncombined platinum have been found in Brazil. Palladium is 15 times rarer than platinum, and is considered to be highly toxic and carcinogenic.  

Uses

It is used in the making of an alloy — white gold — which is extensively used in jewelry making. Nowadays, palladium is being used in many electrical appliances as the component material of multi-layer ceramic capacitors.

Rhenium

Rhenium was discovered by a German team in the 1920s. It was the last discovered naturally occurring element. Chile, The United Kingdom, and Germany are major exporters of this rare metal. Rhenium is usually extracted from molybdenites and columbite ores.

Uses

Rhenium is used to make superalloys that are used to make parts of jet engines and gas turbine engines. They are also used in the making of temperature controlling devices and heating elements.

Rhenium is also used as a catalyst to fracture the natural petroleum extracts into more useful products like gasoline, diesel.

Iridium

Iridium is another rare earth metal with a high density and a melting point. Its reactive tendencies are similar to that of gold. Iridium is also extracted during the process of nickel refining. Like other platinum family group members, it is very rare and used for very specific purposes.

Uses

Alloys made of iridium are used to make bearings used in compasses. Due to its high density and melting point, it is also used to make standard meter bars. It is also used as an electric contact in spark plugs due to its inertness and high melting point.

Rhodium

Rhodium is another rare metal from the same family of rare elements. In fact, it also resembles other metals of the group. Rhodium is highly conductive and is extremely resistant to corrosion.

Uses

Rhodium is used as catalyst in the making of acetic acid, nitric acid and other hydrogenation reactions. One of the distinctive uses of rhodium is the part it plays in catalytic converters of cars. It is used to reduce the formation of nitric oxide in exhausts gases of the car.

Osmium

It is the densest of all the rare metals of the platinum family. It is a hard bluish metal with powerful properties as an oxidizing agent. It can be extracted from platinum bearing ores in North America, South America and Urals.

Uses

Due to its high density, it is used to make different instrument pivots and electrical contacts. An amorphous form of the metal can be used for staining on microscopic slides and detecting fingerprints.

The distinctive and unique uses of all these six rare metals tell us that while they belong to the same metal family, their properties go beyond the familial bond they share. Each individual metal has its own unique traits that distinguish it from the rest.

 

Tumbled Stones – Finer Representation of Rocks and Minerals

Tumbled Stones Variations
Tumbled Stones, also called Polished Stones are a favorite for decorations

Different rough rocks and minerals that are shaped into small, rounded and brightly polished pieces are called tumbled stones. Tumbler machines are used for the purpose. The machine tumbles stones and minerals until their rough edges and surfaces get smoothed and polished.

Due to their pleasant and sharp appearance, many people are fond of tumbled stones. They are also called by the names of tumbled gems and polished stones.

Natural Resources Suitable for Making Tumbled Stones

Mineral and rocks that are inherently attractive and radiant in their appearances are used to make tumble stones. Minerals and rocks with Mohs hardness more than 5 are considered good choices for the making of tumbled stones because they don’t easily get broken. Hard minerals are also easy to polish. There are different naturally occurring materials that can be used to make tumbled stones.

Chalcedony: It is a cryptocrystalline form of silica with a very fine intergrowth of moganite and silica. Agate, jasper and bloodstone are the types of chalcedony that are used to make tumbled stones.

Quartz: It is another mineral chiefly made of silica. Crystalline quartz such as amethyst rose and citrine quartz are used to make attractive tumbled stones.

Rocks: Different igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite, basalt, lapis lazuli and unakite can also be shaped into tumbled stones.

Fossils: Petrified (fossil) wood, silicified coral and turritella which contain gastropod fossils are also used as substrates for the making of tumbled stones.

Many other minerals can also be used to produce these attractive, lustrous stone.

Preparation of Tumbled Stones

Rock tumbler is the machine used to make these ornamental stones. Rotary machines used in tumblers usually expose the surface of rough minerals and stones with abrasive grit and water. The barrel which contains minerals and stones rotate for a long period of time. The constant exposure of grit helps in abrading off rough points and edges on the surface of stones.

Once the stones get a smooth texture, they are treated with micro granular silicon carbide that further improves the softness of the surface in order to prepare them for polishing.  

The final step is to treat the stone with micron-size aluminum oxide. It produces a lustrous and bright surface of the rock to give them the ultimate look of tumbling stones.

Rock Tumbling: A Hobby

People have a hobby of making tumble stones on their own. They collect rough minerals and rocks that can be tumbled into stones. Smaller rock tumbling machines are available that usually tumble a few ounces of rocks into tumbled stones. On the other hand, commercial tumbling machines can work on a few tons of rock at a time.

Traditional Uses of Tumbled Stones

Tumbled stones are used in a variety of ways. Their prices vary according to their weight and the type of mineral and stone that has been used in their making.

For Different Craft Works

Due to their attractive and lustrous appearance and availability in different colors, tumbled stones can be used for a plethora of craft assignments and items.

A Component of many Wearable Arts

Since they look good and are easily available in smaller sizes, tumbled stones are also used in the making of earrings, charms, pendants, cufflinks and tie tacks. Jewelry made of tumbled stones is also reasonable with its pricing.

Standalone Gifts

Larger tumbled stones with stunning appearances can be used as gift items. They can also be used to decorate the wrapping of gift packages.

For Home Décor

To provide a color-coordinated touch to candle holders, picture frames and other home décor fixtures, tumbled stones can be used brilliantly, without spending hefty amounts of money on decorations. They can also be used to fill flower vases with matching colors for further beautification.

A Tool of Alternative Medicine

A large chunk of commercially produced tumbled stones are used for alternative treatment methods in spas, massage centers and alternative medicine facilities. They are used as healing crystals, chakra stones, and energy stones in alternative medicines.

For instance, there is an alternative concept of having different spiritual points on the body known as chakras.  Tumbled stones are then used to place on these points to relieve physical and spiritual discomforts. These treatments are not endorsed by scientific research, but they are used by many since they possess no harmful side effects.

Blue Flames and Acid Lake: A Geological Marvel Around Indonesia’s Kawah Ijen Volcano

Kawah Ijen Volcano, Indonesia
A geological marvel of blue sulfur gases at the  Kawah Ijen,volcano in Indonesia

The volcano of Kawah Ijen, situated on the island of Java, is known for two distinctive geological phenomena. It is a shallow volcanic crater emitting hot and combustible sulfurous gases. These gases burst into electric blue flames when they enter Earth’s atmosphere due to the abundance of oxygen. A portion of the emitting gases also get condensed in the atmosphere to take the shape of molten sulfur. The blue ambiance created by burning sulfur produces a striking view, especially at night.

The second geological phenomenon is a one kilometer wide caldera lake of turquoise blue water. This unusual color of water is due to high acidity and high concentration of dissolved metals in the reservoir.

This caldera reservoir is the most acidic lake with a measure pH of as low as 0.3. These high levels of acidity are caused due to the fact that hydrothermal waters inflowing in the lake is charged with gases from a hot magma chamber.

History of the Volcano

According to geological findings, volcanic activity in the area began 300,000 years ago with the buildup of a humongous stratovolcano which is now known as Old Ijen. A stratovolcano is a high, conical buildup of layers of hardened lava and volcanic ash. The volcano grew to the height of about 1000 feet over thousands of years with repeated eruptions.

The caldera lake was formed about 50,000 years ago with a cascade of intense volcanic eruption. During last 50000 years, many small stratovolcanoes within this Caldera including Kawah Ijen have been formed. Kawah Ijen is located in the eastern part of the Caldera.

The volcano is still active, but hasn’t experienced magmatic eruptions since 1817. However phreatic eruptions have been happening till today. The last phreatic activity occurred as recently as 2011.

Lake Also Produces Sulfur Deposits

The opening of volcano at the lake-side produces a continuous stream of sulfur enriched gases. These gases usually flow underground in the absence of oxygen. If the gas is hot enough at the time of eruption, then sulfur will ignite into blue flames, but usually the temperature of the mixture is not that high, which results in the condensation of molten sulfur when it comes out on the surface. This molten sulfur then travels a short distance before ending up in solidified form.  Local people collect those deposits of sulfur and sell them to a local sugar refinery.

Kawah Ijen Volcano: One of the Few Sites of Artisanal Mining in the World

Most of the sulfur produced around the world is the byproduct of natural gas processing and oil refining. This site is one of the few ones where sulfur was mined, even though the process is a dangerous one. Miners have to walk up to the top of the mountain and then descend down the dangerously steep and rocky paths of the crater. They use metal objects; usually steel bars to break solidified sulfur from the outcrops. They fill up their baskets with soft sulfur rocks travel back to the sugar refinery. Miners are paid according to the weight of the sulfur.

Recently, miners have installed numerous pipes along the mountain. This network of pipes is created to collect the sulfur-laden gases from various vents and openings of the volcano and direct them to those areas from where gathering sulfur deposits is easy. This development has made the process of collection more efficient and less harmful for the miners.  

Kawah Ijen Volcano: A Tourist Site

Many adventurous people have made this place a tourist site. The area around possesses a beautiful landscape with fauna that can only flourish in these highlands. With an elevation of more than 2,000 meters, atmospheric temperature around the volcano is usually low. The fusion of different air temperatures — cold ambient air merging with the heat escaping from the volcanic openings, creates a very peculiar sensation that can’t be felt anywhere else.

A moderate 3-km track, which traverses through Casuarinas forest, leads up to the volcanic rim. From here the journey gets arduous with 2 km more of relatively steep trail and ends up giving you a breathtaking panoramic view of Ijen Caldera. A slightly pungent smell of sulfur fumes rising from the acid lake will welcome you. For safety purposes, it is better to wear a gas mask.

 

Evaluating the Methods to Cleanse Gemstone Necklaces

Gemstone NecklacesGemstone necklaces need effective cleansing every now and then. If you take proper care of these healing gemstones, you can benefit from their extensive capabilities. Their cleansing is necessary to ensure nothing daunts their beauty and healing capabilities.

Therapeutically, it is said that gemstones are capable of releasing unwanted and harmful energies from a person’s body. Sometimes, these unwanted energies gather up on the surface of gemstones as well as in the energy field surrounding each of them, which compromises the healing power of gemstones. Therefore, it is important that you cleanse your gemstone necklace regularly.

There are various methods to cleanse gemstone necklaces. Running water, moonlight, sunlight, salt, soil cleansing, smudging, clay packs and baths are among the most common ones. Additionally, there are cleansing sprays available that are made with the energetic imprint of gemstone energies. These sprays are designed to remove a range of unwanted energies. This method may be considered as the easiest, quickest and most effective of all.

Water

While water is effective for cleansing of crystals and crystal cluster, there are some considerable drawbacks in cleansing gemstone necklaces with water. The most evident one is premature necklace breakage. This problem can occur if the gemstone necklace is cleansed using water daily or more often, if you have a severe medical condition. Also, repeatedly losing contact with the gemstone necklace, to let it dry, can affect its therapeutic resources. 

Moonlight

Bathing in moonlight can be effective, but only in case of certain gemstones, such as Sugilite. It may appear as if it is the light of the moon, or rather sun’s reflection, that does the cleansing, but in fact, it’s the gravitational pull. Remember to first apply a cleansing spray on the gemstone, before placing it outside to bathe in the lunar energy. Also, always place it in a protected area and for few hours.

Sunlight

Another popular method of cleansing a gemstone necklace is sunlight. However, sunlight can impart destructive solar radiation and bleach the color from certain gemstones. If you are going to place gemstone in sunlight, always remember to place it behind a windowpane to avoid the harmful effects of solar radiation. This method is, however, no longer recommended due to constantly changing cosmic and solar radiation level, which can damage gemstone’s therapeutic energies.

Salt

An easy way to cleanse your gemstone is by placing it in a bowl of salt. However, this does not provide a complete cleanse. Salt crystals are able to absorb a lot of unwanted energies, but not all of them. Also, you must replace the salt every two to three days.

Cleansing Sprays

Cleansing sprays solve almost all the problems regarding crystal and gemstone cleansing. These sprays eliminate the risk of necklace breakage due to wet threads and also enable you to be in constant contact with your healing gemstone necklace. Surface of gemstones is also not damaged. Soft gems such as Rhodochrosite, Apatite and Fluorite are also not under any risk when cleansed with a cleansing spray.

Different people prefer different methods, but using a cleansing spray to cleanse a gemstone necklace eliminates the risks other methods pose to the physical and therapeutic characteristics of the stones.  

What Are Synthetic Gemstones?

Have you ever heard of the term ‘synthetic gemstones’?

Chances are that you have. Also, you may be under the impression that synthetic gemstones are not real; however, in the world of gemstones, the word ‘synthetic’ does not mean ‘fake’. The word has been derived from a Greek word which means ‘to put together’. Thus, synthetic gemstones are those that are man-made. This means that they are manufactured or grown in a laboratory and have the similar physical and chemical properties and appearance to their natural counterparts. In some cases, however, synthetic gems may contain additional compounds. Synthetic gems that are somewhat dissimilar from the natural ones include opal and turquoise.  

Synthetic gems look exactly like their natural counterparts and only a well-trained or experienced expert can distinguish a synthetic gemstone from a natural one.

The production of synthetic gemstones is not a new phenomenon, as many believe. Their production started around late 19th century mainly due to their industrial usages, such as in the fields of microelectronics, laser technology, and communications. They are also used as abrasives. However, they soon started to be used in the jewelry industry as well. The first known gem that was successfully produced in the laboratory was ‘Ruby’.   
How Are Synthetic Gemstones Grown?

Yes, you read it right!

Synthetic gemstones are actually grown (the accurate term used within the industry). This is done in the laboratory. The process entails combining various chemicals in a particular environment so that they automatically arrange themselves–without any human intervention-in a particular manner so as to create the same structure as that of real gems.

Some of the processes that have been used for growing or producing synthetic gems are:

  • Verneuil Process. In simple terms, this is known as the ‘flame fusion’ process. It is the oldest and the cheapest method of creating synthetic gems.
  • Czochralski Process; also called ‘crystal pulling’.
  • Flux Growth
  • Hydrothermal Growth
  • Skull Melt Process
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
  • High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT)

The most commonly grown or manufactured synthetic gems are Sapphires, Diamonds, Quartz, Opals, Emeralds, Ruby, Spinel, Alexandrite, Amethyst, Ametrine and Citrine.

Simulated Gemstones Are Different From Synthetic Gems

A lot of people use the terms ‘synthetic gemstones’ and ‘simulated gemstones’ interchangeably. However, there is a difference between the two.

As mentioned above, although synthetic gems are made in the laboratory, they mostly have all the same properties as that of natural gems. However, this is not the case with ‘simulated gems’. These are actually the fake stones. They only look like the natural gems, but their physical and chemical properties are different.

Plastic or glass is used for the production of simulated gemstones. This is why they are available at extremely low rates.

So the next time you go for gemstone shopping, always remember that synthetic and simulated gems are two different things. It is a simulated gem that is fake, not the synthetic one.

Gemstones and Astrology

The sky, planets and stars have been sources of wonder and inspiration for a large number of people for hundreds of thousands of years. Poets and writers have used the moon to symbolize beauty and scientists have studied the movements of stars and planets to find and study various laws of nature.

There is another group of people that believe that the relationship between various stars and their movements affects human beings. They are known as astrologists.

Astrology: What It Really Is?

For a common person, astrology is all about zodiac signs. However, the sign is only a part of the wider field of astrology. In broader terms, astrology is defined as “a field that investigates and studies the influences of stars and planets on human life.”

According to the proponents and experts of astrology, a person’s life and personality is largely shaped by the positions and movements of stars, planets, sun and moon at the time of his/ her birth.

Astrologists study these very positions and movements to not only find out someone’s personality traits, but also to predict their future, in terms of finances, relationships, successes and failures and even health.

While some claim astrology as a field of pure science, others think it falls under the category of metaphysics because it deals with the non-physical entities.

Why Astrology Has Been So Popular?

Despite the fact that time and again, scientists have discredited astrology and its significance or relevance to human life, in any way, it has continued to appeal and fascinate millions of people all over the world. This is believed to be due to the very nature of human beings.

Humans have always wanted to be in control of their lives however, the unpredictable nature of human life is the greatest hindrance in this regard. Therefore, anything that in any way promises to remove this obstruction has always attracted humans. Since the ability to predict future greatly increases one’s control over life (as one could prepare for the upcoming things beforehand and could avoid unfavorable things and circumstances), it has captivated people’s’ attention since ages.    

Types of Astrology

There are two key methods to study the positions and movements of stars and planets and the relationship between them, giving birth to two main types of astrological systems:

  • Western Astrology

The origin of Western astrology can be traced back to Babylonian and Hellenistic traditions. As evident from the name, it is largely practiced and followed in western countries. It mainly revolves around horoscopes and sun signs. It has often been criticized for having a limited approach; it only considers the position of sun at the time of a person’s birth to make predictions.  

  • Vedic Astrology

Vedic astrology traces its origin to ancient India, about 5000 years ago; this is why it is alternatively called Hindu or Indian astrology. It uses a holistic approach i.e. it studies the positions, and movements of both sun and planets, to calculate horoscopes, to interpret someone’s personality and to prophesize about people’s’ lives. Since Vedic astrology takes into account various factors, it is said to be more accurate than the Western astrology.   

Considered as the ‘Science of light’, the Vedic astrology studies the connection between the human body and various celestial bodies of the earth’s solar system.

Gemstones

The lore associated with gemstones is as old as human beings. Not only gems have been associated with cultures, religions and various spiritual practices, they were also used for adornment and various medicinal purposes during ancient times. This is due to the belief that gemstones have various inherent qualities and can affect the personalities and lives of humans.

How Do We Define Gemstones?

Gemstones are usually inorganic minerals that occur naturally in the earth’s crust and are extracted, cut and polished to be sued for various purposes. Gemstones are known for their beauty and durability.

Thanks to the advancements of modern world, we now have some synthetic gems as well. Synthetic gems are those that are not naturally found, rather are prepared in labs. Since real gems tend to be really expensive, synthetic gems are considered as good, cheaper alternatives. They have properties similar to the real gemstones.

Gemstones and Astrology – The Connection

Gemology i.e. the “study (ethnic or scientific) of gemstones, has been an essential branch of applied astrology from the time immemorial

The connection between gemstones and astrology was first identified by the Vedic astrologists. They believed that each gemstone is ruled by a planet and if we could identify the position of planet in each person’s chart, and the planetary rulership of a gemstone, gems can be used for personal development, healing and for attracting positive energies.

It is believed that every living being produces some energy in the world. It is this energy field where our emotions, habits, beliefs and thought patterns reside. Gems are thought to affect that energy field and as a result a person’s’ mental and emotional energies. With time, these subtle effects of gems can cause long term changes in a person’s habits, emotions, thoughts etc.

However, to gain the benefits of gems, it is crucial that you use the right gemstone according to your ruling planet or horoscope.

Since only astrologers can understand the complex details associated with planets, their movements, relationships etc. and not many people understand the idea of ruling planet, they have used the horoscope system for gemstones recommendations.

Gemstones According To Sun Signs (Astrological Gemstones)    

  • Aries – Bloodstone
  • Taurus – Sapphire
  • Gemini – Agate
  • Cancer – Emerald
  • Leo – Onyx
  • Virgo – Carnelian
  • Libra – Chrysolite
  • Scorpio – Beryl
  • Sagittarius – Citrine
  • Capricorn – Ruby
  • Aquarius – Garnet
  • Pisces – Amethyst

Gemstones According To Ruling Planet

  • Sun – Ruby
  • Moon – Pearl
  • Mars – Coral
  • Mercury – Emerald
  • Venus – Diamond
  • Jupiter – Yellow Sapphire
  • Saturn – Blue Sapphire
  • Ascending Lunar Node – Hessonite
  • Descending Lunar Node – Cat’s Eye

Modern Birthstones

  • January – Garnet, or Rose Quartz
  • February – Amethyst or Onyx
  • March – Aquamarine or Bloodstone
  • April – Diamond
  • May – Emerald or Chrysoprase
  • June – Pearl, Moonstone or Alexandrite
  • July – Ruby or Carnelian
  • August – Peridot or Sardonyx
  • September – Sapphire
  • October – Opal, Watermelon Tourmaline, or Pink Tourmaline
  • November – Topaz or Citrine
  • December – Turquoise, Zircon, Lapis or Tanzanite

Final Word

Despite the fact that the roots of the connection between gemstones and astrology can be traced back to the ancient times, it is still not considered by many as having any scientific base. Therefore, different opinions and views exist with regard to the role gemstones and astrology plays in one’s life.   

Easy Ways to Start Your Own Mineral Collection!

Are you a fan of relaxing, quiet time, spent in the outdoors? Are you an individualistic person, who enjoys bonding with others with similar interests and building connections?

Collecting minerals involves adventure, a connection with nature, spending time outdoors and then enjoying the collections created by others; hence building some interesting, possibly life-long connections.

Howard Fensterman is a NY lawyer, with a knack for mineral collecting. He has helped scores of collectors build and secure their personal collections and that makes him the perfect advisory for anyone just getting in the habit of mineral collecting.

He also suggests the following concrete steps to get your mineral collection off to a great start.

  • Invest In a “Field Guide”

Get a guide or catalogue that clearly defines the qualities of different mineral specimens along with clear pictures. Learn your way through these books and you will soon be able to recognize and class the minerals.

  • Check Out Museums and Other Collections

Books are great; but there is something immensely engaging about seeing mineral collections in person.

There is something so enthralling about the cuts, colors, lustrous finishes and shapes of an amazing specimen.

Find out if there are any public displays of mineral collections in your city and pay them a visit.

  • Attend Mineral Shows

Hundreds of mineral shows are held across the world each year. Try to get to a few once a year and you’ll love the atmosphere if you are a true mineral connoisseur.

Remember mineral shows aren’t just for buying raw-form minerals, but also precious jewelry and other items. These are also a good place to get an up-close and personal look at some beautiful specimens.

  • Go Field Collecting

True-blue mineral collectors can’t resist the charms of finding and collecting fine mineral specimen all by themselves. Go out in the field, visit an active or inactive stone quarry, or take a walk along a natural rock exposure for example, along a shoreline or in the woods. It’s easier to see the veins and pockets containing traces of minerals. And if you are lucky, you might even be able to prospect some beautiful precious/semi-precious stones for yourself.

Are you excited about making your first mineral acquisition? Keep visiting Howard Fensterman’s website here and be inspired by his lifelong passion for mineral collecting.

How to Identify Fake Gold Nuggets

Interested in investing in Gold? Be careful! It isn’t always easy to tell a gold nugget from a copper nugget that has been polished to shine just like real ones. And then there is Fool’s Gold; this is simply the name given to some naturally occurring minerals such as chalcopyrite, bismutite and iron pyrite that look a lot like unpolished gold to the unsuspecting eye.

But there are some ways of testing the nugget and find out if it really is what the seller says it is i.e. gold! And in case you still can’t figure it out, it is always a good idea to consult with a mineral and precious metals expert to help you make the right decision.

As a connoisseur of the finer things in life, Howard Fensterman has a passion for minerals and metals.

According to the professional lawyer and gemstone authority, Howard Fensterman offers the following few ways of ensuring the authenticity of your gold nuggets.

Real Gold Is Heavy

Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3 g; this simply means that it is 19.3 times heavier than a corresponding volume of water. A nugget made of any other metal will feel a lot lighter than a real gold nugget. So if you have ever handled gold, let your intuition guide you on this one. Or better yet, get a weighing scale!

It Always Looks Amazing

Hold the gold nugget under a lamp. Look at it from various angles, turn it around and examine it properly. The color and lustrous shine of a gold nugget remains uniform, but Fool’s Gold will show variations and get caught out! The uniformity in appearance is the secret to figuring out if you have a real gold nugget or not.

Gold is Tough

Try hammering a nail into the gold nugget. Don’t worry; if it really is gold, you don’t run the risk of damaging it.  Because if it cracks or crumbles away, it’s not gold.

Real gold can’t be broken away that easily, it may best or dent slightly but it sure won’t crumble under a hammer.

Do the Nitric Acid Test

This is the most effective, foolproof test we have to date. Drip just one drop of nitric acid (be careful) on the nugget. If it fizzes into green foam, it isn’t gold but copper instead. On the other hand, if the nugget is entirely unaffected by the nitric acid, the Gold Nugget is good.

The Last Word

As the value of gold continues to increase, so does the temptation for scoring a good deal on gold nuggets. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is!

If you’d like to obtain more specific information about the qualities of gold, check out Howard’s article the history and scientific background of this amazing mineral.

A Countdown of the Five Strangest Geological Formations

  1. Moeraki Boulders

These unusually large and spherical boulders are found lying along a stretch of Koekohe Beach on the coast in New Zealand. The boulders are concretions made by the cementation of the Paleocene mudstone that was exhumed by coastal erosions. The boulders are estimated to have taken about 5 million years to form. After being analyzed, the boulders were found to be made of mud, fine silt and clay, cemented by calcite.

  1. Giants Causeway

In Northern Ireland, the Giants Causeway is an area of 40,000 interlocking basalt columns. These columns are the result of an ancient volcanic eruption. The tops of the columns form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot and vanish into the sea. Similar basalt columns are found in Iceland, near the town of Vik. These perfectly hexagonal forms are typically found near sources of water, most commonly along coastlines or near streams and rivers.

  1. Cave of the Crystals

Located a thousand feet under Naica mountain in Chihuahua, Mexico, the Cave of Crystals is a cave connected to the Naica Mine. The main cave contains massive selenite crystals, some of the largest natural crystals ever found. Hydrated sulfate gypsum is believed to have crystallized at a very slow rate over half a million years to form these huge crystals. Currently, only scientists are able to visit the Crystal Cave. Other caves continue to be discovered beneath Naica, including the Queen’s Eye, Candles Cave, Ice Palace, and Cave of Swords.

  1. Chocolate Hills

The Chocolate Hills is a geological formation in Bohol province in the Philippines. There are around 1,700 of these conical karst hills spread over an area of more than 20 square miles. They are covered in green grass that turns brown during the dry season and look like endless rows of chocolate kisses, giving the hills their name. The conical and symmetrical rolling hills are actually grass covered marine limestone.

  1. Salar de Uyuni

Found in southwest Bolivia, Salar de Uyuni Is the world’s largest salt flat at 4,086 square miles. It contains around 10 billion tons of salt. The salt flat is located near the crest of the Andes, at an altitude of 11,995 feet above sea level. The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes about 42,000 years ago. The Salar contains large amounts of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, and borax. Currently, it holds between 50-70% of the world’s lithium reserves.

 

Asteroid Mining : A New Gold Rush

The idea of mining asteroids has been around for over one hundred years. In the late 1800s, this idea first came about, and today it is not just an idea, but a reality. There are currently four different private asteroid mining companies that are actively pursuing this new endeavor, such as Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries.

All the different types of minerals and metals needed to make electronics such as platinum and gold is quite scarce on Earth. Space, however, is rich in these metals. Platinum is a fantastic conductor, yet it is rare on Earth but very plentiful in space. A typical 100 foot asteroid could contain as much as 50$ billion worth of platinum. Asteroid 433 Eros contains about $3 trillion dollars worth of gold. This amount of gold could devalue the entire market, but one thing is for sure, it will definitely have an economic impact.

Twenty years ago, Shell discovered the first North Sea oil deposit located underneath 5,000 feet of water and 10,000 feet of rock. Shell took a very costly risk to extract the oil using robotics, in a very hostile and distant area. This same technique can be applied to mining asteroids. The technology for mining already exist. There have already been three missions, two from NASA and one from Japan, that used probes to reach asteroids and collect dust from their surface. This is the first step to mining asteroids. Besides the scientific value, these explorations are on the brink of launching an entire new industry.

There are nearly 10,000 asteroids near Earth that have mineral mining potential. With the need of electronics such as smartphones, computers, and other technologies increasing, the global demand for minerals such as copper, gold and platinum is also increasing. The lure of asteroid mining is powerful. Congress has already passed a bill, the Asteroid Act, that will allow those that mine asteroids to claim its resources as private property.