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Top Five Largest Diamonds in the World

“Diamonds” by whatleydude is licensed under CC BY 2.0

What is it that we have not seen or heard about diamonds? From being a girl’s best friend to a creating a political fiasco, diamonds never fail to be the center of attention. They have potential to capture anyone’s eye; especially the bigger stones.  People are still fascinated by diamonds as they were in ancient times. Promising strength due to their non-breakable nature, diamonds are also a symbol of love and commitment.

When it comes to diamonds, size is a huge attraction and increases the value of the stone. Here is a list of the top 5 largest diamonds in the world.

Sergio

Weighing 3167 carats, Sergio is the largest rough diamond in the world. It was discovered from Brazil in the year 1893 and is one of the rare black diamonds that still have scientists debating about the origin of this category of the stone. It has mythical stories attached to it and is thought to hail from meteoric origins; but regardless of anything being said, Sergio enjoys the title of being the largest diamond of the world.

The Cullinan

The Cullinan weights a magnificent 3106.75 Carats and ranks second in the list of the largest diamonds in the world. It is famous around the world due to numerous reasons. Weighing 1.37 lbs when discovered, it made a striking gift for Edward II, the then King of United Kingdom. Later on, the Cullinan was taken to Amsterdam where it was cut into 9 large and as many as 96 small gems. Today, it values to be an estimated $2 million.

Excelsior Diamond

Excelsior Diamond had the honor of being the largest diamond of the world until 1905, when The Cullinan was discovered. It was founded in the year 1893 in Jagers Fontein Mine. Later on it was cut into 10 stones with the largest one weighing 69.68 carats. It is a beautifully stunning white diamond that reflects a hint of blue as well.

Star of Sierra Leone

Discovered in 1972, this beautiful stone made it to the hands of Harry Winston, a famous American jeweler. Since it was in rough form, this magnificent diamond was cut into 17 smaller gems, some of which were used to craft the famous Star of Sierra Leone brooch.

Incomparable Diamond

Incomparable weighs 890 carats and is a discovery of 1989. Found in Congolese by a young girl, it was years until experts cut the magnificent stone into smaller gems. The final result was a uniquely triangular shaped diamond in the shade of yellow and brown. Most recently, it was up for auction on Ebay in 2002. Surprisingly, no one bought this beautiful piece.

Gemstones have high value due to their size, shape, color, cut, and weight. In case of diamonds, it enjoys a very special status that has a abstract meaning and worth as well.

Gemstone Jewelry in the Times of Ancient Rome

Rome has been known for many things. From its philosophers to traditions, it has made a mark on history. One other thing that still survives time from the old era is its beautiful gemstone jewelry. Roman Empire was expanded over vast land and was rich in different kinds of minerals. Its jewelry was a combination of its own inspirations and influences of Egyptian, European, African, and Mediterranean jewelry art.

Types of Gemstones Used

Their jewelry was made of precious minerals for the base as well as the crowning which was mostly done using precious and semiprecious jewels. This required experienced hands and creative minds which were not so rare in Roman Empire. From the earliest of times, roman jewelers were experienced in using different kinds of gemstones including rubies, sapphires, diamonds, emeralds, pearls, ambers, jets, and garnets.

Roman Men and Gemstone Jewelry

Gemstone jewelry was designed differently and specially for men. It was to be worn in front of the knuckle rather than behind it as we do today. This explains the smaller size of the rings. In the earliest centuries, rings were worn on all 10 fingers but this trend later reduced to a single ring.

The Art of Wearing Rings

Rings were the most popular pieces of jewelry. They were made for both the genders and had beautiful designs made on the band and the stone. The gemstones were often carved with pictures of gods or even historical figures. Among all the gemstones, carnelian was the most famous gemstone used for rings. Garnet, quartz, and amethyst were also preferred by most.

Not Just for Beautification

Gemstone rings in ancient Rome were not only used to be worn as beautiful items of fine jewelry. They also reflected beauty and the status of the wearer. As is the ritual today, rings were exchanged to honor engagements in Ancient Roman era. Special rings were worn by kings and people with authority to seal documents using rings in order to verify the belongingness of the sender.

Fibula

After rings, this was the second most worn piece of jewelry that was studded with precious and semiprecious jewels. Fibulae were used by men and women both to hold their clothing together. It appeared like a fancy brooch and was made in various designs.

Gemstone Jewelry for Women

Women wore a variety of other jewelry that was made using gemstones as central pieces. These included bracelets, waistbands, etc. Earrings, toe rings, and hairpins were also commonly used and were studded with stones like jasper, onyx, pearls, peridot, emeralds, lapis lazuli, etc.

Ambers Were Far More Valued Than A Roman Slave

The most precious and prized ambers were collected from the Baltic region and even though they were not even proper minerals owing to their production from tree resin, they were valued to be far more precious and worthy than a healthy roman slave.

Gemstones have seen a magnificent era in Ancient Roman times and have been used in numerous ways from the beautification of people to the adornment of ornaments and sculptures.

Industrial Uses of Diamonds

pollo_synthetic_diamond Diamonds are the most popular and most beautiful gemstones used by people all over in the world to show their love for someone. You may have seen many women wearing these rings and bragging about them in their social circles. However, this famous gemstone also has some abrasive uses on an industrial level. Having been given a rating of 10 on the Mohs Scale, diamonds have the highest level of hardness, durability and strength. Thus, they have a lot of industrial applications.

Let’s have a look at how diamonds are used as abrasives for industrial use.   

Industrial Diamonds

While many of you may be wearing it in the form of rings or necklaces, diamonds also serve industrial purposes. However, the appearance of industrial diamonds is unlike the one you wear. They are small diamonds which are less than a millimeter in size. They are yellowish and black in color, have a lot of incisions and have no cuts at all. The four C’s which are used to determine the quality of diamond; clarity, carat, color and cut, do not apply on industrial diamonds because they are not designed keeping in mind these considerations. They are only used by industrialists for rough work because of their hardness, strength and durability.

Use of Diamonds in Industries

Diamond Drill Bit

Diamonds are used in drill bits to drill through hard surfaces, such as oil wells. Each one of them has small pieces of diamond at the tip. As the bit turns, these cuts turn their way. A grinding wheel, or a drill bit, is used for the purpose of grinding, drilling and cutting. After grinding, it forms a powder which is made into diamond paste and is later used for fine grinding or polishing.

Diamond Speaker Domes

Industrialists also use diamonds in high quality of speakers. Since a diamond is a very stiff material, it can be made into a thin dome and vibrates rapidly without affecting the sound quality.

Diamond Windows

Made from diamond membranes, diamond windows are used in x-ray machines, lasers and vacuum chambers. These diamond windows are resistant to heat and are very durable. Also, they are transparent in nature and are not prone to abrasion.

Heat Sinks

These are the sinks that transmit or absorb excess heat. As diamond is a natural mineral, it has the highest level of thermal conductivity than any other material found on earth. It is used to absorb heat away to protect heat-sensitive parts from being damaged. Thus, they have multiple applications in the microelectronics industry.

There is a very large market for the industrial use of diamonds. Also, there are proper specimens for industrialists to learn about the different purposes that diamonds can be used for. From yellowish to blackish shades, the industry diamonds are not colorless, have a very rough structure and cannot be used for making jewelry; hence, they are only used for industrial work and needs.

Now that you know about the use of diamonds other than that they are used in making jewelry, we hope you find this article interesting. Do come back and check with us again for more interesting information on minerals!

Make a Collection of the Rarest Minerals


collection of the rarest mineralsWhat would be the dream of a mineral collector? Probably, to collect the rarest of minerals and gems. There are gems and other minerals that nature hides for centuries before they take a form that makes them so exquisite and valuable. It is this century-long process of transition and development that makes them priceless. There are minerals that are far more rare and precious than diamonds; what we consider to be the finest gem of all.

Though diamonds are considered to be girl’s best friend, there are many rare minerals that have the potential to give this clichéd concept a run for its money. Minerals, like Sardinian ichnusaite and cobaltomenite, are found in only a few locations over the entire planet. Sardinian ichnusaite is found only in Congo, Bolivia, Utah, and Argentina, while cobaltomenite has an overall supply that can be fit in a shot glass. Painite is the world’s rarest gemstone mineral according to Guinness Book of World Records. Only 25 specimens of these gemstone have been found till date, from the time of its discovery in the 1950s.

On the whole, 5,000 minerals have been catalogued out of which, only 100 form 99% of the Earth’s crust. The remaining work as pixie dust that makes Earth’s near surface environment so diverse. They are scattered at different locations across the globe.

Many of these rare minerals are very sensitive. Several of them can’t stand the sunlight and decompose if exposed to it. Others can’t stand the temperature and evaporate, melt, or dehydrate. Due to this reason, their mining, extraction, and preservation is quite a challenge. However, the presence of these minerals also indicates the extreme atmosphere and climate found in the Earth’s crust. One such example is that of Fingerite, which is found near the summit of the Izalco Volcano in El Salvador. It is so sensitive to the normal atmospheric conditions and changes that it washes away every time it rains.

What makes them so rare? If you compare the supply of minerals that are considered to be rare, diamond for instance, to the ones that are actually rare, like Painite, you will realize that the criteria of rarity is quite different than what we generally assume. According to scientist, Dr. Hazen, what actually make a mineral rare are 4 principles:

  • The temperature and pressure at which they mineralize is quite specific and extreme.
  • They are found far below the Earth’s surface and its outer crust.
  • The ambience is far more extreme, so much so that it would not survive in the otherwise normal ambient conditions.
  • There is a sample bias in cases.

Though scientists are carrying out further research to create artificial environments for the preservation of such minerals, these minerals and gemstones are, at the moment, far beyond the reach of any common mineral collector. That being said, it still can be a mesmerizing dream for many.

 

What Are Igneous Rocks?

Igneous_rockIgneous rocks form when magma cools and solidifies. This happens both above and below the surface of Earth. Magma is made up of the atoms and molecules of melted minerals that rearrange themselves into mineral grains. When magma cools, rocks are formed. Magma can be forced into adjacent rocks, forced to the surface as lava, and also be blown out in volcanic explosions.

Over 700 different types of igneous rocks exist. Some of these types include granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, and basalt.

Types of Igneous Rocks

Granite is a very common rock that contains 25% quartz and is commonly used in construction due to its strength and abundance.

Pumice is a very lightweight rock that forms when molten rock is quickly blown out of a volcano. As pressure is lost and the rock cools quickly, tiny bubbles (vesicles) are formed.

Obsidian is a volcanic glass that forms very rapidly without any crystal growth. Its edges are sharp and smooth making it a great choice for cutting tools or arrowheads.

Tuff is a rock formed from volcanic ash. During volcanic eruptions, rock, ash, and magma falls back onto Earth and is compacted and cemented into a rock, becoming a lens-shaped deposit called tuff.

Basalt is extremely common rock found all over our solar system. It is used in building materials and thermal insulators. When subjected to extreme heat and pressure over time it will metamorphosize into granulate.

 

What Are Metamorphic Rocks?

Memorphic Rock Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed over a long period of time by extreme pressure and heat. These types of rocks can be made by pressure deep under the Earth’s surface, from extreme heat caused by magma, or by intense collisions and friction of tectonic plates. Metamorphic rocks are brought up to the Earth’s surface by erosion and uplift. Types of metamorphic rock include marble, slate, quartzite, and gneiss.

Types of metamorphic rock

Marble is formed from the sedimentary rock limestone. Marble is usually white with streaks of color. It can take polish very well which makes it a commonly used rock in architecture and sculpture.

Slate is a fine grained rock derived from the sedimentary rock mudstone. When cut on a parallel to its foliations, slate will form smooth flat sheets that have long been used for roofing, floor tiles, as well as for writing on.

Quartzite is formed from quartz-rich sandstone that has been altered by heat, pressure, and chemical activity. It is very durable and heat resistant, with a similar look to marble but much more sturdy.

Gneiss is a coarse grained rock that can metamorphosize from either igneous or sedimentary rock. Its name comes from the Middle German word gneist, to spark, due to its glittery appearance.

Earth’s Lost Mineral Found in Meteorite

135 years ago a meteor struck land in Australia. Hidden inside the chondritic meteorite, lies a previously undiscovered form of garnet which belongs to the majorite group. The microscopic particles of this dense mineral make up a large portion of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. In 1985, this mineral was artificially created and given the nickname of tetragonal garnet.

The ones to discover the mineral naturally were a group of mineralogists at the Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research in Japan led by Naotaka Tomioka. The scientists had the honor of naming the mineral which they discovered in a slice of the 19th century meteorite. The new mineral formed in space when two asteroids collided at a speed of 2 kilometers per second.

Each component of this new mineral contains 32 magnesium atoms, 32 silicon atoms and 96 oxygen atoms which is identical to the previously artificially created tetragonal garnet. The researchers identified the undiscovered mineral by bouncing electrons off of the mineral’s crystal structure. It’s unique structure and shape let the mineralogists identify it. Other minerals discovered in the same meteorite include akimotoite and bridgmanite.

 

The Science Behind the Age of the Earth

Geological_time_spiral How do you calculate your age? You simply go take out the difference between your birth year and current year, isn’t it? But when it comes to taking out the age of the sprawling sphere which we call home, Earth, it becomes a bit trickier. Let’s explore what science has to say about the age of the Earth.

The age of the Earth couldn’t be guessed by anyone before the process of radiometric dating came into play. In 1898, the pioneer of radiology, Marie Curie discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity. The atoms either decay or lose energy by emitting radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles. Later, in the year 1904, Ernest Rutherford, the famous physicist determined how this decay could let them explore the age of old rocks.

With this exploration, Arthur Holmes, who was completing his geology degree in London, acted as a helping hand by developing a new technique of dating rocks using the uranium lead method. He applied this technique to the oldest rock and got to know its age. Applying the similar technique to calculate the age of the Earth made him reach the conclusion that the Earth was at least 1.6 billion years old.

But wait, this is not the actual age of the Earth! The Earth’s age has always been hotly debated among the scientists over the years. That is why several revisions have been made. Later, in 1920’s, an unknown scientist declared that Earth’s age was approximately 3 billion years. This suggested that the Earth was even older than the universe, which itself is 1.8 billion years old.

Later, the scientists declared that radiometric dating of the fragments from Canyon Diablo iron meteorite was the best estimate for calculating the age of the Earth. From those fragments, they got to know that the true age of Earth was 4.56 billion years.

Since then, scientists have been using radiometric dating to determine the age of extraterrestrial objects such as Earth, meteorites, space rocks and moon rocks. For many years, scientists have tried to determine the exact age and now that they have discovered its age using the radiometric dating, they are using it for several other space objects as well.

If you want to explore some more interesting information from the world of geology, come back and join us for more interesting information on other fascinating topics.          

Mining: A Brief Overview

mining-imageThe term ‘mining’ means extraction. The process of mining entails the extraction of valuable resources from the earth by using various methods and techniques.

Discovery of Mining Techniques – A Revolutionary Development

The discovery of the methods and techniques to extract the treasures that lie beneath the surface of the earth and the development of various machines to carry out the processes was a revolutionary development in the history of mankind.

It not only makes our daily lives a lot easier by allowing us to utilize the vast reserves of oil, coal and gas for daily purposes, but it also led to the invention of various instruments, gadgets and items of everyday use which are made with the help of various metals, like copper, iron, aluminum etc. In addition to these, we were also able get our hands on some of the most precious metals and stones just because of the development of various mining techniques and methods. Had geologists not invented these techniques, we would not have been able to use gold, silver, diamond, emerald and other precious stones to make beautiful ornaments to adorn ourselves with.

Countries prospered and civilizations developed as they started extracting the natural wealth lying beneath the surface of the earth and used it to further their economic activities and industrial growth.

bucket_wheel_excavator-for-mining
Bucket Wheel Excavator for Surface Mining

Types of Mining

The process of mining can be broadly divided into 2 categories:

  1. Surface Mining
  2. Underground Mining

These types are further divided into various sub-categories.

Surface Mining

Surface mining is a broad category that is comprised of various methods used by geologists to extract the mineral deposits, metals and ores lying near the surface of the earth. Different kinds of surface mining are:

  • Open pit or Opencast mining
  • Strip mining
  • Quarrying

The most common element extracted through surface mining is ‘coal’.

Underground Mining

Underground mining includes techniques and methods used to extract metals, ores and minerals that lie deep within the earth and cannot be taken out with surface mining techniques. In these types of mining techniques, an entrance point is made from the earth’s surface, which is in the form of a mine shaft, an adit or a tunnel. Major types of underground mining are:

  • Longwall mining
  • Room and pillar mining
  • Shaft mining
  • Block caving
  • Cut and fill stoping
  • Borehole mining

Negative Effects of Mining

In addition to the numerous benefits provided to human beings due to the extraction of valuable natural resources, the processes used to carry out mining produces have some negative effects as well, particularly on the environment. Some of the major negative impacts are as follows:

  • Mining causes the emission of various gases, dust and trace elements that lead to the contamination of air and surface water.
  • The quality of the soil and its fertility is compromised because of mining. Also, it makes the soil toxic.
  • It causes deforestation, destruction of landscapes and wildlife habitats.
  • The water table gets lowered due to mining which in turn affects the flow of groundwater.

Knowing What’s Underneath the Earth’s Surface

Breakaway view of the earth's inner cores
Breakaway view of the earth’s inner cores

Geology is an interesting subject as it involves studying different features of the earth including the oceans, mountains, rocks, earthquakes, and volcanoes.

Basically, a geologist studies all solid and liquid matter that forms the earth in addition to the history and processes that have fashioned it. A basic and important part of geology is the earth’s interior. This part of geology is what we’re going to discuss here.

Earth’s Interior

Just like the interior of your car, the earth’s interior is made up of a variety of elements and a number of layers are present in the earth’s interior. The earth’s crust, mantle, and the core are its major layers. The mantle is further divided into the upper and lower mantle while a liquid outer core and a solid inner core constitute the earth’s core.

The earth’s crust

The first layer of the earth consisting of about 16 kilometers of rock as well as unattached materials is known as the crust. Compared to its thickness under the oceans, the crust’s thickness underneath the continents is almost three times more.

The Earth’s Mantle

earth mantle cutaway viewMantle is the layer beneath the crust and accounts for a large majority of the Earth’s volume. Movements, know as convection in geology circles, is responsible for earthquakes and volcanic activity.  Almost 1,800 miles deep, the mantle consists of substances that are rocky, solid and thick. Of the earth’s total weight and mass, 85 percent is made up of this substance. Very hard, rigid rocks make up the mantle’s first few miles. Super heated solid rock makes up the next 100 or so. Solid and sturdy rock materials make up the next hundred miles of the earth’s mantle.

The Earth’s Core

Two layers that are mostly iron make up the earth’s core. Iron is estimated to make up about 90% of the earth’s core with oxygen, sulfur, or nickel combining to form the remaining 10 %. The earth’s core consists of mostly iron and nickel. Solid, the earth’s inner core measures about 1500 miles in diameter.

The earth’s outer core also consists of mostly nickel and iron. The earth’s inner and outer cores combine to become as big as the planet Mars. Superheated liquid molten lava is what most people believe earth’s outer core is made of. A solid ball comprising mainly of nickel and iron is believed to make up the earth’s inner core.

There you have it—the earth’s interior and its components. The next time you start digging holes in your garden, you will know exactly what lies underneath it.