Category Archives: Minerals

The Carbon Atom

Illustration of the carbon atom
Bohr Illustration of the Carbon Atom. Photo: Photo by dacurrier on Pixabay

Carbon Element Overview

If you watched Star Trek, in one episode, the Nomad, the robot that referred to the humans as carbon based lifeforms, and for good reason. Because that’s what we are! 

Virtually every organic compound on Earth contains carbon. In fact, life as we know it would not exist without carbon. That’s because it has a unique ability to bond with itself and other elements fairly easily, due to it’s need to find more electrons to bond with.

Carbon is the sixth element in the periodic table with the chemical symbol C and atomic number of six. It has two electrons in its inner shell and four electrons in its outer shell (valence shell) as shown in the Bohr illustration above.

Because the carbon atom has a natural desire to fulfil its outer shell to eight electrons, or saying it another way, it needs to to fill up its outer energy level, it will constantly look to bond with other atoms in order to obtain the four more electrons. Once bonded, the atom’s outer shell is fully stable. Carbon atoms can form bonds with other carbon atoms, but they can also form bonds with almost all other elements. 

Carbon can exist in multiple different forms known as allotropes: graphite, diamond and others. It’s also a non-metal, but one of the most important elements on earth. Carbon atoms have many uses, from making steel to fueling cars.

This article explores most everything you wanted to know about carbon atoms and their various forms.

Types (Allotropes) of Carbon Molecules

Graphite

Graphite showing a pencil
Image by Gino Crescoli from Pixabay

Graphite is an allotrope of carbon. It’s a black and soft mineral that is commonly found in nature in the form of pencils. Although graphite is often treated as a mineral, it’s more commonly considered a form of carbon. Graphite is very soft and can be easily compressed into a very thin sheet.

Graphite is made of layered sheets of carbon atoms that form stacks known as graphene. Each layer is made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal pattern with strong covalent bonds. These layers are held together by weak intermolecular forces that are easily broken by heat. That’s why pencils can be erased by rubbing graphite and paper together!

The Diamond

The diamond is another allotrope of carbon. The only difference between the two is that diamonds are made of carbon atoms arranged in a cubic pattern. This makes diamonds a hard and most rigid substance. 

Diamonds are also made of graphene sheets that are held together by strong covalent bonds. These properties make this mineral extremely valuable, but they’re also highly limited in supply. That’s why they’re one of the most expensive materials on earth. 

It’s estimated that only 0.1% of carbon that enters the earth’s surface is converted into a diamond. This is largely because diamonds are formed at very high pressures beneath the earth. 

When carbon deposits are subjected to a combination of very high temperatures and pressure, they can change to diamonds. It may take a long time before the carbon is changed into a diamond, but it will change. It all depends upon the temperature and amount of pressure that is put on it. We can’t find a better demonstration than when Superman crushed coal (a product of carbon) simulating the creation of a diamond. 

Carbon Bonds

The covalent bonds that can from carbon can result in many different types of molecules. It’s possible for carbon to form thousands of bonds with other elements. This is why carbon has so many uses in the world.

Fullerenes

Fullerenes are carbon molecules that are composed of many rings of carbon. They were accidentally discovered in 1985 by two scientists who were studying carbon soot. The discovery was so exciting that the scientists won a Nobel Prize for their discovery!

C 60 – the most common carbon molecule – has 60 carbon atoms arranged in a spherical pattern. This sphere can be thought of as a football because the name “fullerene” comes from two English words: football and carbon.

C 60 is known as a buckyball and can be used as a tool for scientists. Yes, that’s what it’s called. Buckyballs are carbon atoms that are bonded to three other carbon atoms. Scientists can use buckyballs to study the structure of other molecules.

Why is There So Much Carbon in the World?

Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe. Carbon is created in the interiors of stars and then released into the universe when those stars expire. It is present in the earth’s crust in the form of minerals and organic compounds. C 60 , the largest buckyball, is only possible at a pressure of 100 gigapascals – the type of pressure that’s found inside giant planets. (A pascal is a unit of pressure. Gigapasclal is that unit of pressure x 1 billion).

Diatomic Carbon

Diatomic carbon is the simplest form of carbon. It contains two carbon atoms with one double bond between the atoms. A double bond is where on atom shares its valence electrons with two other atoms, in contrast to a covalent bond created by lighting and oxygen in the air, but it is usually destroyed by other compounds in the atmosphere.

This is important because diatomic carbon is a greenhouse gas. Carbon atoms are released into the atmosphere when plants are burned. These atoms are then oxidized by the other compounds in the air to create more diatomic carbon. Diatomic carbon is one of the most important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is precisely why it’s released in the first place!

Conclusion

Carbon is the element that forms the molecules for all known forms of life on earth. It’s the only element that can form molecules with a ratio of electrons to protons that’s necessary for biology.

Carbon is not a metal. Metals are largely defined by their electrical conductivity. Carbon is a non-metal and does not conduct electrical current.

Illustration of an extraterrestrial
iStock

Carbon is also very common in the universe and can form multiple different types of bonds with other elements, so when Noman called humans carbon based life forms, because of its abundance in the universe, maybe he met other carbon life forms in the galaxy we just don’t know about yet!

 

Titanium – What is It and What is It Used For?

Photo of titanium
titanium metal alloy, used in industry, super resistant metal. Photo: iStock

Overview

In the last few years, there has been a lot of buzz about the metal known as titanium. The reason is that it has quite a few properties which make it useful in everyday life.

It is strong, lightweight, and corrosion-resistant among other things. It is most popular for being used to create aircraft parts and car engine components; however, there is so much more to this metal than meets the eye. 

People have used titanium for thousands of years. Only recently we have begun to understand exactly how useful this mineral can be. It was found to be extremely useful for military stealth functions, starting with the famous SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, due to the metal’s strength and high-temperature resilience (as we will discuss below) and the fact that it is light weight (e.g. in this case, functioning as a material that is very strong but light), it was perfect for this spy plane. 

Let’s take a look at some interesting facts about titanium.

Properties Stronger than Steel

You might have heard that titanium is as strong as steel. While this is not entirely true, it is close enough to be significant. To begin with, strength is not a single chemical property of a material. But for simplicity, let’s treat it as one. 

The tensile strength (measurement of a material’s elastic stress when a load is placed on it – how much it can withstand before starting to stretch or pull out before breaking apart) of steel is around 100 gigapascals (GPa) – the unit of measurement of tensile strength. (One pascal is equal to 1 newton of force per square meter).

The tensile strength of titanium is about 60 GPa. Therefore, steel is stronger than titanium. However, the thing to note here is that titanium’s strength is applied only at a very specific point. Let’s say that you have a piece of metal that has a high tensile strength across its entire surface. This does not make it stronger than a piece of metal with a lower tensile strength applied at a specific point.

Titanium Symbol
Titanium (Ti) has 22 electrons and 22 protons. Photo: iStock

Chemical Properties of Titanium

Titanium has a lot of unique properties that make it special. It has a very high melting point (more than 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit). Because titanium resists oxidation at high temperatures, it is often used in high-temperature applications.

Oxidation is the loss of electrons, resulting in the titanium atoms becoming vulnerable to combining with other atoms; subsequently changing its properties and compromising the material.

A perfect example of using titanium for its resistance to oxidization   at high temperatures is that it makes an excellent material for the SR-71 since this plane had the ability to fly at Mach 2.5, which is close to 2,000 miles per hour. This metal is also corrosion-resistant. This means that titanium is very useful when exposed to water or air. 

Titanium has an atomic number of 22 and an atomic weight of 47.867, which means it has 22 protons and approximately 48 protons and neutrons, respectively.

Everyday Uses of Titanium

Titanium is being used in many different industries, and there are several everyday uses of titanium that you may not be aware of. This is because titanium is lightweight, strong, and corrosion-resistant, making it the perfect material for sports equipment.

    • Sports equipment – If you are a sports fan, you may have seen athletes wearing titanium-containing sports accessories. 
    • Medical equipment – If you ever get an MRI scan, you may be inside a machine that is made of titanium. This is because titanium is very safe to use around living tissue and can be sterilized easily. 
    • Marine parts – If you own a boat, you may be surprised to learn that the propellers and rudders are often made of titanium. This is because it is strong, lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and does not affect water flow. 
    • Water and air purification – You may have seen pictures of large towers in cities. These towers are used for water purification and are often made of titanium. 
    • Construction – Buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure are often constructed using titanium. This is because it is highly corrosion-resistant and very strong. 
    • Food packaging – If you have ever eaten food that was in a pouch, there is a good chance that the pouch was made of titanium.

How is Titanium Produced?

Titanium is made through a process known as the Kroll process. – First, titanium ore is mined and then sent to a smelter where it is heated to extremely high temperatures.

The resulting molten metal is then sent through a chemical reduction process which removes oxygen and other impurities. The molten metal is then cast into ingots and then rolled into long bars. These bars are then drawn through a press that elongates them and makes them thinner. Finally, the bars are shaped into their final forms and then sent to be coated or processed further.

Problems with Manufacturing and Existing Processes

As you have read, titanium is a very versatile material that can be used in a wide variety of industries. However, there are some issues with the current methods of manufacturing this mineral that needs to be addressed. 

    • High costs – Currently, the process of producing titanium is very energy-intensive and expensive. The cost of the metal itself is also quite high, making it costly to produce certain products. 
    • Contamination – The process of manufacturing titanium is quite complex, and there is a risk of contamination in certain areas of the process.  
    • High purity requirements – Another issue with titanium is that it has very high purity requirements. This means that the resulting metal can be very impure even after the purification process. 
    • Difficult to produce large quantities of titanium in the quantities needed for the industries that use it.

Concluding Words

Titanium is a very versatile metal that can be used in a wide variety of industries. However, due to its high costs and difficult manufacturing process, it is often difficult to produce large quantities of titanium. With that said, titanium is used for very specific functions. This article has explored the many uses of titanium and the process behind its manufacture.

 

What Components Make Up EV Batteries?

Photo iStock, Credit: Golden Sikorka

E‍V Battery Overview

In our previous article, we discussed the advantages of owning an electric vehicle. Now, let’s delve further into the component of an EV – its battery.

Electric vehicle batteries consist of several subcomponents that work together to store and discharge electricity. These individual sections are also known as cell components or cell materials. The parts combine to form the complete battery and each has its own unique properties and function.

When considering the various types of electric car batteries, it’s important. Knowing how they function can help you make a more informed decision when purchasing a new electric car, hybrid, or extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) battery.

What are the Components of EV Batteries?

Before we review these components, we need to make sure we understand what an electrode is.

An electrode is a conductor which is a negatively charged (anode) or a positively charged (cathode) material. You can read more about electrodes here.

The different elements of an electric car battery include the following:

  • Anode – The anode is the negative electrode of the battery. It’s made from a metallic oxide material, such as nickel oxide or iron oxide. Anodes are highly porous, allowing for the movement of electrons.
  • Cathode – The cathode is the positive electrode of the battery. It’s made from graphite, a porous material with high electrical conductivity.
  • Separator – The separator is a thin, porous material that sits between the anode and the cathode. Its purpose is to keep the electrodes from touching each other. This is important to prevent overheating, which could result in the battery catching fire.
  • Electrolyte – The electrolyte is a liquid that serves as a conductor of an electric charge. The electrolyte helps move electrons from the anode to the cathode.
  • Container – The container or housing holds all of the components of the battery in place. It’s made from a corrosion-resistant material, such as stainless steel.
  • Cooling System – The cooling system ensures that the battery does not overheat. This can happen if the battery is overcharged and the temperature of the battery rises.

Battery Cells

Illustration of a battery cell
Photo: Wikimedia CC

The most important component of the battery is the cell, which is often made from lithium-ion or lead-acid materials. The cell is composed of active materials, electrolytes, and electrodes that are used to store and discharge electricity. The electrode is a conductor that helps to move electrons from one electrode to the other.

The most common electrodes used to make the anode and cathode are lithium and lead. Batteries can be composed of one cell or many cells connected together. Single-cell batteries are the most common type of electric car battery. Multicell batteries are used in larger-scale storage, such as solar systems or large-scale energy storage systems.

Electronic Parts

The electronic parts of an EV battery include the battery management system (BMS), the charge controller, and the voltage regulator. The BMS is basically an electric circuit that’s used to monitor the health of the battery by measuring voltage levels, charging/discharging rates, and temperature.

The BMS can also help to prevent overcharging and over-discharging of the battery. The charge controller is used to charge the battery. It helps to balance the amount of energy used to charge the battery and the amount of energy generated from the grid or solar panel.

The charge controller also measures the amount of current flowing into and out of the battery during charging. The voltage regulator is used to balance the voltage levels of the battery during charging and discharging.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries are the oldest type of battery used in electric cars. They are very cheap to produce and are easy to maintain. However, they are not as efficient as other battery types. They also contain toxic materials, such as sulfuric acid.

These types of batteries are typically used in large-scale grid energy storage systems, such as in a commercial or industrial setting. Lead-acid batteries come in both flooded and sealed types, with the flooded type being the most common. Flooded lead-acid batteries are filled with a liquid electrolyte. They are commonly used in electric vehicle systems.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium is very popular because of the ease with which it can release its electron, which makes it ideal for the electrons to flow between the anode and cathode.

Lithium-ion batteries are very efficient, have a long lifespan, and are capable of being fully charged in less than one hour. They are less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries and are used in a wide range of consumer electronics. Currently, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles used lithium-ion batteries.

Where Do the Materials that Make Up a lithium-ion Battery Come From?

Generally speaking, there are five minerals that are considered essential for Li-ion batteries:

The locations where these materials are mined can originate in many different parts of the world, with China being the major exporter of graphite, which is the most important mineral that comprises the anode for these batteries

Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

Nickel-metal hydride batteries are also used in electric cars in both hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. They are cheaper than lithium-ion batteries and are easier to recycle. 

Conclusion

There are many different types of electric car batteries, each with its own unique properties and functions. When considering the various types of batteries, it’s important to understand what makes up these different battery types.

Understanding how they function can help you make a more informed decision when purchasing a new electric car battery or an extended-range electric vehicle battery.

When looking for new batteries, make sure to understand their warranties and how they are manufactured to ensure you get the best product possible. 

A Detailed Guide to Amazonite to Amazonite’s Spiritual Benefits

Amazonite mineral stone
Amazonite  Stone

We are back to another discussion about the potential healing properties of minerals. This one is amazonite. 

Found in soothing cool green and turquoise colors, the amazonite stone features grey swirls and pale cream stripes. This particular stone gets its name from the Amazon River and it reflects the lushness and fertility of the jungle surrounding it, but years before the Amazon River came into being, ancient Egyptians would collect this stone from the mines in the mountains near the Red Sea to adorn the tombs and palaces of the Pharaohs. 

In this article, we will take a detailed look at the myriad uses and benefits of this evergreen stone. 

Amazonite Virtues

Amazonite holds some amazing virtues that set it apart from other stones, giving you the desire to want it more. The stone’s stunning appearance and soothing aura emanate compassion, and stress and anxiety relief. Amazonite is believed to be great for throat and heart chakras and for balancing Ying and Yang. Moreover, this stone is also believed to improve communication. 

Amazonite is typically found in light green color with hues ranging from pistachio to blue and turquoise. A green color amazonite stone represents renewal, growth, and balance while the blue hues of amazonite reflect calmness, creativity, clear thinking, inspiration, and self-sufficiency. 

Physical Benefits of Amazonite

Since amazonite is believed to be directly linked to the heart and throat chakra, it has a direct physical relationship with this area of the body. It is said that wearing the stone helps people with heart and lung issues and boosts the metabolism and aids with digestion. Since amazonite has an extremely calming and soothing feel, it also can help one get a good night’s sleep. 

This calming stone has a direct impact on anything related to calcium in the body. So, it is believed to help with tooth decay, osteoporosis, and other calcium deficiencies. Stress is another factor that can lead to multiple health-related issues. Since amazonite is a soothing stone, it can help relieve anxiety and improve a person’s overall wellbeing. 

Emotional and Spiritual Benefits of Amazonite

Besides having various physical benefits, this gemstone can also help improve your overall emotional and spiritual wellbeing. Amazonite is perceived to be a highly encouraging gemstone that helps improve one’s self-esteem and confidence and pushes away negative thoughts. 

This stone also balances your masculine and feminine sides, allowing you to appreciate the feelings and opinions of both. Even though quite underrated, this ability can help you make waves in your personal life. Wearing amazonite can help you realize and account for all your emotions, leading to improved communication with your loved ones. 

This soothing stone provides your mind with clarity and guides your focus towards achieving your goals and dreams. Amazonite contributes to one’s creative and imaginative side, serving those with artistic ambitions quite well. 

Also considered as the stone of success and abundance, this powerful gemstone can deliver a ton on the money front. Not only is it believed that amazonite can help you to attract good fortune and money, but it also allows people to gain more control over their finances. 

How to Cleanse Amazonite

Amazonite is very easy to care for. You must clean it every other week to ensure its luster. You can clean amazonite by simply running it under lukewarm water and leaving it in the sun to dry. If you’re looking to recharge your amazonite, keep some mint near or on your gemstone. 

How to Use Amazonite

Now that you know that amazonite is a brilliant stone for you, you’re probably wondering how you can use this stone to reap the maximum spiritual and health benefits. Here’s how:

As a Piece of Jewelry

Perhaps, the easiest way to use this gemstone is as a piece of jewelry. Whether you get an amazonite bracelet, pendant, necklace, broche, or earrings, any piece of jewelry will maximize the impact of the crystal on your body. 

In Your Bag

If you don’t want to wear jewelry, you can simply keep your amazonite in your purse or pocket and use it as a touchstone throughout the day. 

In Your Lap or on Your Body

Placing amazonite in your lap or holding it in your hand while meditating can give you a feeling of calmness. Also, the easiest way to reap the stone’s benefits is by placing it on the different chakra points of your body while laying down. 

In the Bath 

Place your amazonite in your bathtub and have a nice, relaxing bath. Since this stone is impervious, you don’t have to worry about it getting spoilt. 

Amazonite Jewelry

Amazonite is a strong and powerful stone that is durable enough to be worn regularly. The gemstone is typically crafted and fixed into bracelets, earrings, pendants, and brooches. However, you need to be extremely careful if you decide to wear your amazonite in a ring. The reason for this is that a ring exposes the gemstone more, placing it at a higher risk of chipping, scratching, or fracturing. Even if you decide to place your amazonite in a ring, a halo or bezel setting will provide the safety your gemstone needs. 

Even though amazonite is a rare stone, it isn’t as expensive. However, when placed in a high quality setting made of superior materials, such as gold or high-grade silver, amazonite jewelry can easily sell at extremely high prices. Amazonite is also found in some antique pieces that are very valuable. 

The Bottom Line

If you are spiritually enthused, you may try to allow amazonite to bring about a drastic change in your life. To reap maximum benefits, remember to always check the stone to ensure that it isn’t a cheap or synthetic version. 

 

Everything You Need to Know About Amber

Amber Crystal If you’re looking for a gemstone that truly showcases the uniqueness of nature, an amber gem is a perfect choice for you. With a history of tens of thousands of years, amber is one of the oldest minerals that have been used for jewelry. Popular for its golden hues and simplicity, this gemstone is a must-have for collectors.

That said, let us walk you through a complete guide to amber.

What is Amber?

Amber is actually tree resin that has been fossilized. Resin is a fluid that flows from certain trees, primarily conifers like pine trees. This resin often contains insects that have been fossilized in it with time. The reality is that most of the inclusions in amber are actually ants, mosquitoes, and other living organisms, some of which are long gone. As a result, scientists use amber to learn more about ancient living organisms.

Amber may be burned since it is such a soft stone, and it also emits a pine-scented perfume. Additionally, when heated under the right conditions, this gemstone can potentially produce oil.

Amber, unlike most other gemstones, has a wide range of applications. It’s been used to create tobacco pipes and remove lint from clothes (owing to its abrasive properties). It’s also used to produce perfume and in traditional medicine. Even today, in the Western world, amber necklaces and bracelets are popular among mothers who feel it is a natural pain reliever for their children (there is no scientific evidence to prove this, though).

How to Evaluate Amber Gemstone

Like all other gemstones, amber is also evaluated on the basis of the 4Cs: color, cut, clarity, and carats.

Color

Amber is available in many colors. The most popular and widely recognized shades are yellow and cognac. However, you can also find this gem in black, green, white, and butterscotch.

Yellow amber is, of course, the most popular variety due to the rarity of the other colors. The yellow hues of amber can range from orange to brown, depending on the bubbles in it.

Green amber is one of the rarest varieties that are extremely rare and valuable. Also known as cherry ambers, red ambers are a slightly rusty color and can be found in golden red to dark brown shades. Black amber is a very dark brown or red color that is formed due to the mixture of tree resin with soil or other dark inclusions.

Clarity

Unlike most other gemstones, the beauty of the amber gem lies in its imperfections, especially the inclusions it features within. This gemstone is almost always found with inclusions. However, interestingly, although eye-clean amber is valuable, amber featuring interesting inclusion patterns is typically more expensive.

Cut

Amber is most cut into cabochons, with oval and round shapes being the top choice. However, this gem is also available in many other cuts, including hexagon, pentagon, hearts, triangles, and stars. Amber is pretty easy to cut due to its softness, but many jewelers choose to heat the stone to shape it instead of cutting the gem. It’s important to remember that this doesn’t change the gem’s natural properties.

Carat Weight

Amber is an extremely lightweight stone that can even float on saltwater. Even the larger size ambers are very light to hold. So, even if you buy a big amber, it will weigh less than a diamond or emerald of the same size.

Amber Jewelry

Amber is used in many jewelry pieces, including rings, necklaces, brooches, bracelets, earrings, pendants, and cufflinks. Amber’s inclusions can be eye-catching, and it’s generally beautiful from a scientific and historical standpoint.

There are two main perceptions when it comes to metals to mount amber in. Some people prefer silver-colored metals, such as white gold, as settings for their amber gemstone. The main reason behind this is the wonderful contrast of the warmness of amber and the cool tones of silver metal. Either way, silver-colored metals are believed to accentuate the charm of an amber gemstone.

On the other hand, some people choose to utilize yellow gold or rose gold settings for their amber jewelry. While these metals don’t provide as much contrast as silver, they tend to soften the color of the amber and blend well into the stone. The bottom line is that there isn’t any right or wrong choice; it’s all a matter of what you prefer.

Enhanced Amber

One very important factor you need to know about amber is that jewelers often enhance it. Almost every gemstone undergoes various treatments to help enhance its color, clarity or to improve its durability.

Here are a few ways in which an amber gemstone may be enhanced:

To Improve Clarity

Amber gemstones that seem cloudy due to the prominent appearance of tiny bubbles aren’t quite as valuable as other varieties. Therefore, jewelry makes efforts to improve the stone’s clarity by boiling it in rapeseed or linseed oil. An amber stone is slowly heated up in this oil to a boiling point, filling up the tiny bubbles with oil, which removes traces of any bubbly inclusions.

To Improve Color

Since red and green ambers are extremely rare and expensive varieties, some jewelers attempt to change the more commonly found yellow-amber color. For this purpose, they apply a black paste to the gemstone’s surface, then heat the gem to improve its clarity while allowing it to bond with the paste. Some jewelry makers also modify an amber gemstone through dyeing and other heat treatments to change or enhance their color to imitate the color of the more expensive varieties.

Where Can You Buy Amber?

Amber is a pretty popular gemstone with relatively high demand, so it should be very easy to find amber jewelry at your local jewelry store. However, if you’re looking for more options, you can always explore the web to find amber jewelry that suits your taste.

The bottom line is that although soft, amber is a beautiful-looking gem with a stunning color that requires considerable care and attention. We hope that this guide to amber helps you make the right choice when it comes to buying amber jewelry.

 

The Best and Worst Gemstones for Daily Wear

Engagement ring with blue crystal in center
Photo by axecop from Pexels

Love is in the eye of the beholder and so it is with gemstones. There is no “one size fits all” and with so many gemstones out there, you’re probably wondering what your preference would be as the best stone would be for your daily wear.

Well, same as our individual tastes differ, so do gems, as they are unique in their own way, but they aren’t all created equal. Some minerals, although jaw-droppingly mesmerizing, are more fragile than others, and hence, require additional care. Jewelry featuring such gems is excellent for certain occasions, but it can be pretty risky for daily wear items, such as engagement rings.

Additionally, they all follow the 4Cs standards which must be included in the mix as far as what you would like to wear and/or show, and their associated costs.

So, here we go with our list of the best and worst gemstones for daily wear. 

Gem Hardness is a Primary Consideration

If you’re rough with your jewelry and don’t pay enough attention to their wellbeing, you should consider avoiding these stones, especially rings that contain the following minerals.

Amber 

With a 2 to 2.5 rating on the Mohs scale of hardness, this organic material is pretty soft in comparison to its counterparts. Ambers feature stunning colors and are wonderful representatives of nature’s beauty. However, due to their low hardness, these gems are, unfortunately, non-durable and more prone to scratching. 

Pearl

Woman wearing pearlsWith a hardness rating of 2.5 to 4.5, pearls are other incredibly vulnerable gems that are prone to damage. Not only do they scratch easily, but they also require a considerable amount of care to maintain their luster.

Those who own pearl jewelry have to constantly wipe their jewelry after every use to get rid of the dirt and oils on the surface of the stone. Although pearl engagement rings look elegant and romantic, it can be a huge hassle to help the stone maintain its integrity. Some of the most common damages you’ll notice on a pearl ring include dull spots, chipping, or loss of the pearl due to a loose setting. 

Amethyst

Amethyst is a stunning gemstone that is widely recognized for its brilliant purple color. Those looking for a cheaper alternative to a purple sapphire ring often lead towards amethyst. Unfortunately, the bad news is that despite their beauty, these beauties have a significantly low hardness level. With a rating of 7, amethyst gems have the same hardness as dust. 

As a result of their poor hardness, amethysts are highly prone to scratching and wear quite poorly over time until their luster completely wears off. So, if you’re looking for a purple gemstone engagement ring, a better option would be to bump up your budget and opt for a purple sapphire. 

Opal 

Opal Necklass
Opal sterling silver bracelet hand made in Belize. Photo: SS

Opal is a silica-based stone that rates only 6 to 7 on the Mohs scale. This gem comes in various forms based on the location of its source. Since some opals react oddly to water and heat changes, they are deemed unsuitable for wearers who keep their rings on while cooking or washing their hands. 

Although gorgeous with a shimmery glow, the soft nature of opals makes them highly unreliable when it comes to daily wear. So, you must proceed with extreme caution as there’s a chance that your stone may even crack while wearing.

Morganite 

As one of the most popular peachy-pink minerals, morganites symbolize love and innocence. While this may make them seem like the ideal pick for engagement rings, they might not be the best choice. Since morganites have a very light color and low sparkle levels, they show dirt and oil almost immediately. Even those who take significant care of their ring face this problem. So the best choice is to opt for pink spinel, pink sapphire, or pink topaz instead. 

Gems for Everyday Wear

Ruby Necklass
Ruby Necklass. Photo: pixabay.com

If you’re in search of the best gems that you can wear every day without fretting about them, we have some great options for you. 

Tourmaline 

Tourmaline is a truly wonderful gemstone that you should have as part of your jewelry pieces. This beautiful crystal comes in various colors, including blue, black, green, and pink. With a rating of 7 to 7.5, it is considered pretty durable compared to many other gemstone counterparts. Moreover, this gemstone was largely popular amongst royalty during the 1800s, making it a fantastic choice for engagement rings. 

Aquamarine 

Aquamarine stone on a ring
Photo by Andy Holmes on Unsplash

Known for its cooling watery blue color, aquamarine belongs to the same family as emeralds (both gems are variations of the beryl mineral). However, unlike emeralds, aquamarines don’t feature multiple includes. 

With a rating of 7.5 to 8 on the MOHS hardness scale, this gemstone is a pretty good choice for those searching for a durable gem that represents calmness and tranquility. Available in light, medium, and darker blue tones, this good-looking rock is truly a treat for the eyes. 

Rubies and Sapphires

Not many people are aware of this, but sapphires and rubies are just different colors of the same mineral. With a rating of 9 on the MOHS scale, they are one of the most precious and durable gems in the world. 

Sapphires come in rich colors, while rubies are typically known for their vivid red color that is incredibly mesmerizing. Although both these stones have some type of inclusions, it’s best to seek eye-clean gems. Also, remember to choose gems with rich medium tones that aren’t too light or too dark. All in all, their vivid colors, incredible luster, and superior hardness make them a fantastic choice for everyday jewelry, especially engagement rings. 

Diamonds 

Sparkling Diamond
Diamond gem with reflection on blue background

You can’t ever miss out on diamonds when making a list of the most durable minerals. After all, with a rating of 10 on the MOHS scale, diamonds are the hardest of the gemstones. Moreover, as the most precious and popular stone in the world, diamonds are also pretty expensive. With their amazing brilliance and resistance to chipping, scratching, and wear and tear, diamonds truly are worth the investment. 

Emeralds

Known for their luscious and mystical green color, emeralds have a rating of 7.5, making them a durable choice. Although emeralds have extensive visible inclusions, they are still very beautiful. So, if you’re looking for a beautiful green stone for your engagement ring, then emeralds are your best bet. However, you must remember to care for them to avoid chipping. 

Conclusion

We hope that our lists of the best and worst gemstones for daily wear help you find the perfect gemstone that suits your lifestyle! 

 

A Complete Guide to Peridot

Peridot Mineral in square form
Wikimedia Public Domain

The unique green beach of Papakolea rests on the land of volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii. This beach has a rather interesting past as it sparkles with stunning gem sand made of tiny particles of a mineral called peridot. 

As a gem variety of the olivine family, peridot is a popular yellow-green gemstone because it’s always born in fire. It is formed deep inside the earth due to the tremendous pressure and heat that exists below the earth’s surface. 

The story of Peridot extends all the way back to the formation of our solar system, which means that this gem existed even before the existence of the earth itself. Intriguing, isn’t it? 

Well, if you’re mesmerized by this beautiful, fresh-looking lime green gem and are looking to learn more about it, you’ve come to the right place. 

This guide covers almost everything you need to know about peridot gems and jewelry.  

Tips for Buying Peridot Jewelry

Like other gemstones, peridots are also evaluated based on 4C’s (cut, clarity, color, and carats). Here are some tips to help you get your hands on the best peridot jewelry. 

Consider the Quality of the Cut

The cut of a gemstone enhances its visible feature even more and also brings out its hidden beauty. A high-quality peridot cut will also make your stone sparkle evenly throughout with no dull, lifeless, or washed-out areas. If you’re searching for a peridot gem, it is essential that you opt for a well-cut, brilliant stone. When cut to a high standard, this gemstone looks impeccable. Since there isn’t any ‘best’ shape for this gem, you should opt for the shape you like most. 

Consider the Clarity

Like all other gemstones, peridots also generally feature inclusions. Since you can find a perfect gem that is free of all inclusions, it is in your best interest to search for a gem that is eye-clean, which means that its blemishes and inclusions shouldn’t be visible to the naked eye. 

Consider the Color

Most gemstones are recognized for their unique color. Peridots are also often known for their lime green color, but some peridots can have different tints and hues. The most desirable peridot is the one with a beautiful and pure lime green color and is free of any brown or yellow hints. It’s best to avoid brownish peridot gems since they are typically considered low quality and are very less appealing. 

Choose the Metals Wisely

If you’re buying peridot jewelry, you’ll want to ensure that you choose a metal that brings out the best in your gem. Generally, yellow gold helps highlight the stunning features of peridot over other white metals. Rose gold also brings out the color of a peridot gem, making it a unique choice for rings and other jewelry. Also, white gold and other rhodium-coated metals often cause pits in peridot gems.

How to Determine if a Peridot is Real

As with other gems, peridot can also be occasionally faked. A fake or imitated peridot is typically made from glass, making it easier to determine its imperfections and set it apart from real ones. 

Here are a few ways you can use to authenticate peridot. 

Perform an Eye Test

One of the best ways to detect whether peridot is fake or real is to have a close look at its color. Genuine peridots have a pure green color with brown or yellow tints. If you notice any other tints besides these two colors, the chances are that your gem is an imitation. 

Check for Imperfections

According to the Mohs scale, peridots have a 6.5-7 hardness rating, which means that it is possible to scratch this gem easily. Take a good look at the gem to look for any scratches or cracks. If the stone looks too perfect, it’s probably unreal. 

Check for Double Refraction

Peridots have a high level of double refraction, which means that you can see two of each pavilion’s facets when examining the gemstone closely. To check for double refraction, hold up the gem against a light. 

Look for Inclusions

Natural peridots almost always have some type of inclusions. While some inclusions are visible to the naked eye, others can be spotted under magnification. However, if you don’t see any inclusions but notice bubbles instead, then there are chances that the peridot is fake.

Check Its Color Under Different Lhigting

Peridots are unique gemstones that don’t change color under light. Genuine peridots will remain the same color despite being exposed to natural or artificial light. Fake peridot, however, will display a different color. 

Caring for Peridot

Peridot ranks only 6.5 on the Mohs scale of hardness, deeming it softer than many other gems. Due to its low hardness, this gemstone requires a considerable amount of proper care and maintenance. 

Firstly, it is recommended to store your peridot jewelry in a separate box or pouch when traveling to keep the gemstone and the metal from scratching each other. 

Secondly, the peridot is incredibly vulnerable and sensitive to rapid temperature changes. So, you must never have it steam cleaned. 

Lastly, like all other gemstones, it is recommended to avoid wearing peridot jewelry when applying cream or lotions. When it comes to cleaning the gem, it is best to use mild dish wash soap and a soft brush to get rid of accumulated dust.

Why We Love This Gem

Peridot has long been associated with sunlight. A major reason behind this is the way this beauty shines green-gold under the sun. In fact, many Egyptians would refer to peridot as the “gem of the sun.” The yellow-green color of peridot is especially unique and looks amazing when paired with yellow gold. Simply put, peridot is like the last squeeze of lime in a cocktail that brings and binds everything together. 

To conclude, peridot is a great gemstone that requires you to be mindful before making any purchase decisions. 

 

An Insight into Smoky Quartz

Smoky Quartz – Overview 

Smoky Quartz
Image by 7924748 from Pixabay

You may be aware of the white, yellowish, rose, and purple amethyst varieties of quartz. But did you know that there is brownish-grey crystalline quartz which is known as smoky quartz?

Smoky quartz is a colored variety of quartz crystal that ranges from yellowish-brown to greyish-brown colors. Some of the specimens may appear so dark that they look black. 

Similar to other quartz crystals, smoky quartz is a silicon dioxide crystal, but it gets its color from the additional silicone that’s formed by the dioxide (a dioxide is the result of two atoms of oxygen in its molecule) due to the natural radiation process taking place from the surrounding rocks underneath the Earth’s surface. 

Smoky quartz is an abundant gem material found in several locations around the world, and hence, it is a relatively inexpensive gemstone. You can find large amounts of these crystals with excellent transparency due to very few inclusions. Moreover, another reason for its relatively low price is the color which does not have a high demand. The greyish brown specimens are considered less desirable; however, when the stone is cut, quartz crystals with a reddish-brown or orange hue are the usually preferred gemstones. 

Where is it Found?

Smoky quartz is an abundantly found gem material that you can find in several parts of the world, but if you look at the geological occurrence of the stone, it is mainly found in quartz veins and extreme igneous rocks that are formed during the later stages of magma’s crystallization. Because of this extremity, you can find the formation of exceptionally large crystals.  

With that said, smoky quartz is the national gem of Scotland. There, it goes by the name “cairngorm” after the Cairngorm Mountains, located in Scotland’s eastern Highlands. Also, this mineral has been found near Pike’s Peak, Colorado.

You can also find smoky quartz that is formed at lower temperatures in the fractures of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The radioactive mineral found in the surrounding rocks plays an integral role in how the gemstone gets its color. The irradiation leads to the very dark shades of smoky quartz; hence, the darker specimens of smoky quartz come from locations with higher radioactive mineral content. 

Currently, the smoky quartz crystal comes from several sources around the world. Brazil is considered the largest supplier of gemstone material that is used in jewelry making. Another major supplier of smoky quartz is Madagascar which it produces in commercial quantities. 

Smoky quartz can also be found at several other locations, including Switzerland, Scotland, Russia, and Ukraine. You can also find it in some parts of the U.S., including Colorado, North Carolina, and Maine. It is the national gemstone of Scotland where it is known as “cairngorm.” Additionally, the darker variety of this mineral is known as “morion” in Scotland. 

Physical Properties of Smoky Quartz

Smoky Quartz pear shaped
Smoky Quartz pear shaped. Wipimedia, photo: Doronenko

This mineral has very similar physical properties as other color variants of quartz crystals. Like its cousins, the chemical classification is silicate, and it ranges from yellowish-brown to orange-brown and greyish brown in color. With a vitreous luster, the crystal has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs’ scale of hardness and a specific gravity ranging between 2.6 and 2.7.  

The color is heat sensitive, and the crystal is likely to change its color when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 300 oC. Moreover, prolonged exposure to UV light can result in a loss of color. However, the color can be relapsed by irradiation of the crystals. 

The Uses of Smoky Quartz

Perhaps the most common use of this particular type of quartz is the gemstone industry. The minerals are refined and cut as gems and are then used to enhance the aesthetic appeal of rings, earrings, necklaces, and brooches. Given that smoky quartz can range from yellowish-brown to orange-brown and a less desirable greyish brown, it can cater to the demands of various individuals. 

The gemstone is used in jewelry making for women and can also be used by men to enhance the appeal of their rings and cufflinks. While the trend is not quite common today, the use of smoky quartz to enhance the appeal of men’s jewelry was quite common during the Victorian Era, where the dark brownstones extracted from the Mourne Mountains of Ireland were often used in jewelry, especially mourning jewelry.

During the early days of the 12th century, the gemstone was used in several parts of the world, including China, to make eyeglasses. These glasses were also used as a shield against UV sunlight and other sources of bright light. Some of the glasses and shields were worn during court proceedings as the darker-toned material was used to hide the facial expressions of the judges.

Apart from jewelry and glasses, smoky quartz is also used as a carving material. Since the gemstone has a relatively lower price and one can easily find large pieces of smoky quartz, it is one of the best choices of gem material that can be used for carving.

Treatments 

As mentioned earlier, the color of these quartz crystals can range from yellowish-brown to orange-brown and even darker shades of greyish brown. However, the gem material may lose its color when exposed to UV light and higher temperatures. 

The color of the smoky quartz may be changed in a lab setting by exposure to higher temperatures. It is a particularly common treatment for dark-colored smokey quartz crystals. However, the stone is seldom treated to revert its color once it loses its darker shade. In addition, it is not synthetically produced in the lab because the mineral is readily available and has a relatively lower demand and price. 

Final Words 

Smoky quartz is a color variant of the quartz family that shares similar physical properties. However, it has a unique color range that makes it appropriate for use as a gemstone. Moreover, its physical properties, such as hardness and specific gravity, make it suitable for carving. 

 

Top 8 Diamond Myths Debunked

Sparkling Diamond
Diamond gem with reflection on blue background (Bigstock)

Most people have a general idea about and how diamonds and how they are made are. After all, as the most popular gemstone on the planet, their appearance and value are common knowledge. Those who have purchased diamond jewelry, especially engagement rings, are also quite acquainted with its 4 Cs: cut, color, clarity, and carat. However, despite its popularity, much of the information about this precious gemstone is often misunderstood.

So, if you think you know everything about diamonds, read on for some fascinating new insights into the world of the diamond!

Today, we’re going to debunk some of the most common diamond myths.

Myth #1: All Diamonds are from Natural Resources

Not all diamonds are natural! Lab-made diamonds aren’t synthetic diamonds but are very real.

You may have seen the Superman series where he crushes a piece of coal to form a diamond. These tales of natural diamonds being made through pressurized coal are one of the most common myths surrounding this gem.

The fact is that diamonds are not made of coal. Natural diamonds undergo a system of exceptionally higher pressures and temperatures from coal which are only found deep inside the earth’s mantle). Coal is found much higher up.

Diamond Labs

The issue of finding diamonds is rectified by having them created in a lab. Many companies started making diamonds by creating a high-temperature and high-pressure lab environment. This practice goes back to the 1950s. These labs mimic the conditions of the earth’s mantle, where natural diamond deposits are present, to create similar human-made gems.

Today, almost 800 tons of man-made diamonds are produced yearly, which is about 150 times more than natural diamonds. 

Myth #2: Diamonds are the Most Valuable Gemstone

Ruby Ring in a BoxA common misconception is that diamonds are the priciest, most valuable gems on the planet. While it’s true that they are one of the four most precious minerals that command high prices, it isn’t possible to judge specific gem species as the most valuable. There are various factors that come into play to evaluate their value, including its size, quality, color, and rarity. For example, pure red rubies are one of the rarest stones, and so they command much higher prices than diamonds. 

Myth #3: The Bigger, the Better!

pollo_synthetic_diamond
Wikipedia

Carats are a unit measure of the weight of a diamond, not its size. A diamond’s size is as your eye sees it, which is largely impacted by the depth of the table-to-pavilion ratio and cut proportions. More importantly, a diamond’s perceived size is impacted by its light performance, which means that the better a diamond catches and reflects light (called fire), the bigger and more attractive it will be perceived to look.

Besides this, compromising on other factors just to buy a huge diamond isn’t going to get you the appearance you’re looking for. The large size of a diamond cannot compensate for its visible inclusions, distorted proportions, and/or poor light performance. So, although size does matter, so does the cut, clarity, color, and rarity of a crystal. Always remember that a huge diamond won’t be more valuable if it has poor clarity and color. 

Interesting Note: The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second but it is slowed down when it hits a diamond (or glass) and the more it hits the diamond on an angle, the more it will reflect the light. So the more angels the diamond has, the more light that will be reflected back. This is where the cut of a diamond determines the amount of brilliance and fire the gemstone has. ‘Cut’ is one of the 4Cs that determine a diamond’s value. So the next time you hear how much fire does a diamond have?, you’ll know they are talking about how well the diamond cuts are!

Myth #4: Diamonds Are Indestructible

There’s no doubt about the fact that diamonds are the strongest, most durable gemstone with a rating of 10 on the Mohs hardness scale. However, this doesn’t mean that these gems are indestructible. Diamonds are tough, but rough usage and inappropriate handling can chip and break these gems. For instance, a diamond with a particularly shallow crown is susceptible to damage. This also applies to diamonds with a thin girdle.

Myth #5: All Diamonds are Flawless

There’s no such thing as a flawless natural gemstone. All gemstones, including diamonds, have some type of flaws, which is another factor in the 4Cs – color. The more the flaws, the more the mineral will shy away from a colorless diamond. Natural diamonds usually contain impurities in their carbon crystal, which gives them a yellowish hue as their crystal absorbs light of a specific frequency. You may come across some colorless natural diamonds that have negligible impurities, but they are usually very rare and hence, quite expensive.

Myth #6: Diamond Engagement Rings are an Ancient Marriage Tradition

Diamond Engagement Ring
Photo by Andy Holmes on Unsplash

This may be hard to believe, but diamond engagement rings became popular in the 20th century. In fact, rubies and sapphires were the most precious and popular ring gems back in the day. Diamonds became popular due to the magnificent ad campaign run in the 1940s by a mining conglomerate known as DeBeers. Their attention-grabbing advertisements created a place for diamonds in the public’s heart and paved the way for the present diamond engagement ring phenomenon.

Myth #7: Diamonds are Unusually Rare

There is no doubt that diamonds are incredibly attractive and a highly valuable gem. But, compared to other colored stones, diamonds are quite common. Millions of people own diamond jewelry around the world, which means that diamonds are more prevalent and easy to find in the market. This doesn’t mean that they aren’t desirable or luxurious; it rather means that, unlike other gemstones, diamonds don’t derive their worth from scarcity.

Myth #8: The 4Cs are the Only Way to Determine a Diamond’s Value

The 4Cs are a globally accepted standard to determine the value of a diamond by evaluating its features. This guide was developed mainly to make diamond shopping easier for consumers by allowing them to assess the stone’s quality and choose the ideal piece. However, the 4Cs aren’t the sole determinants of a diamond’s value. Age, history, and rarity are also contributors to a diamond’s appraisal.

Wrapping Up

By now, you’re aware that most of the things you learned about diamonds from grade school and hearsays are myths. One thing we can say for sure is that diamonds are one of the most precious stones that are generally stunning and can command exceptionally high prices. 

However, it is always good to uncover the facts so that you know what you’re getting into. Don’t let the most common diamond myths listed above deter you from purchasing one. Instead, we hope that learning about these myths helps you make a more informed decision.

 

A Guide to Citrine

Citrine Mineral
Citrine – A stunning yellow gemstone to add to your jewelry collection 

With its beautiful sunny glow, citrine has been long believed to be a treasured gift from the sun. As a variety of quartz minerals, citrine gets its name from the French word ‘citron,’ which means ‘lemon.’ With colors ranging from lemon yellow to a rich honey gold, citrine can light up any piece of jewelry due to its warm sunny shade. The stone is more affordable than most gems because it is available in abundance like all other quartz gems.

History of Citrine

Citrine was one of the most popular gems back in the 1940s. Its bright color and dramatic proportions led this gem to become one of the boldest stones of the era. Citrine was often set with aquamarines and rubies in colorful jewelry pieces, including necklaces, brooches, and bracelets. 

What Does Citrine Symbolize?

Due to its bright color that emanates a beautiful golden glow, citrine is believed to symbolize optimism. In ancient times, however, this gem was believed to possess the power to protect one against evil words and thoughts. 

Where is Citrine Found?

Most citrines available on the market have been mined in Brazil. Bolivia is another country that has become a leading producer of the gem. In fact, Bolivia also produces a gem known as ametrine, which is the unique combination of amethyst and citrine. Additionally, citrine is also found in Namibia, Zambia, and Tanzania. 

Citrine very rarely occurs naturally. Most citrines start out as amethysts and are then heat-treated to become yellow or yellowish-brown. So, if you do get your hands on a citrine, it’s best to assume that it has been heat-treated. 

Before modern gemology, citrine was often confused with topaz. In fact, many people still refer to citrine as topaz quartz. The truth is that topaz is a completely different mineral that is not to be confused with citrine. 

How to Buy Citrine

As with any mineral, there are the 4 C’s guidelines you need to consider when buying citrine. 

Color

Although citrine is generally thought to be a yellow gemstone, its colors can range from a light lemony hue to an earthy brown shade. Even though everyone has their own preference when it comes to color, it is important to see for saturated colors with an even tone across the stone. The most valuable citrine is the one with a saturated golden hue with fiery orange flashes. 

Clarity

As with all colored gemstones, the same rule applies to citrine: the clearer, the better. Inclusions and blemishes can considerably degrade the value of a gemstone. Due to the fairly light color of citrine, you will often come across stones with very visible inclusions. However, since citrine is found in huge quantities, you don’t need to compromise on the clarity and quality of the gem. When buying citrine, make sure to search for eye-clean gemstones that have no prominent inclusions, cracks, or blemishes. 

Carat

With citrine being available abundantly, you can find them in some enormous sizes. Citrine is often readily available in huge carat sizes that can be used in eye-catching pendants or chunky earrings or rings. The best part about this gem is that you can buy even a 10 or 20-carat gem at a very reasonable price. 

Cut

Citrine is a fairly durable gem that can easily be cut in the most stunning shapes. Besides the basic cuts, this gem can also include some fancy carvings, cabochons, and even flower cuts. It is quite important to pay attention to the quality of the cut, as it is what ultimately determines the beauty of the gem. A well-cut citrine will emanate a brilliant sparkle evenly across the entire gem. 

How to Care for Citrine

Citrine is a fairly durable gem but isn’t as strong and durable as you’d want it to be. The facets of citrine slowly wear down over time due to the dust in the air. Although citrine has a stable color, exposure to high heat may end up deteriorating the color over time. Additionally, if you’re wearing a citrine ring, you will have to wear it very carefully since it can be prone to chipping. 

The best way to clean citrine is with mild dish soap and water. It is also recommended to take off your jewelry when applying creams or lotions. Moreover, make sure to store all your gems separately to keep them from scratching each other. 

Citrine vs. Yellow Sapphire

When it comes to appearance, yellow sapphire is the only yellow gem that comes closest to citrine. However, these gems differ in many other ways. For instance, while a yellow sapphire has a hardness rating of 9, citrine has a hardness rating of 7, deeming it fairly weaker than sapphires. Also, citrines are found in abundance, which is reflected by their affordable prices. Sapphires, on the other hand, are rarer and much more expensive. 

Citrine for Engagement Rings 

Although diamonds and sapphires are the most popular gemstone choices for engagement rings, don’t underestimate the power and beauty of citrine. With a rating of 7 on the Mohs scale, citrines are fairly hard and durable stones that can be used for engagement rings. The most popular engagement ring style is a halo ring with a pave band. Other options include large citrine solitaires and three-stone citrine rings that feature a stunning round or emerald-cut citrine stone in the center with two diamonds on either side. The beautiful shades of yellow also allow citrines to go well with different metals, including yellow gold, white gold, and rose gold. 

The Bottom Line – Why We Love Citrine

Citrine is the alternative birthstone for the month of November. Found in various styles, shapes, and some stunning colors, citrine is certainly a treasured stone. This gem is loved by many mainly due to its warm color, lovely shades of golden, and affordability. Whether you’re looking to incorporate a beautiful yellow gem in your necklace, bracelet, or engagement ring, citrine should be your top choice.