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Can We Still Call Coal ‘the Black Diamond’?

”Unexcavated  Photo by pkprojectyayimages.com

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock abundantly present within the Earth’s crust. Just two centuries ago, it didn’t have any commercial significance. Private companies and governments were still enamored by the brilliance of gem-grade minerals and wouldn’t work out excavation programs to mine coal.

However, the discovery of electricity and the subsequent wave of industrial growth changed coal’s fate. A sedimentary specimen once considered of no value earned the title of the ‘black diamond’, and rightly so. No one can deny the role of coal in developing and shaping the global economy in the last century and changing the lives of millions of people for better.

But, the tables have turned now. The substance that fuelled the industrial revolution is now considered by many as an antagonist in the rapidly deteriorating climate conditions. As it stands, more than 80% of the coal mined around the world is used to generate 37% of global electricity. Coal is primarily made of carbon along with nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur. During combustion, this carbon reacts with oxygen and produces greenhouse gases that are the main culprit of global warming. This is an alternative, called clean coal, but this process has a way to go before it reaches the mainstream of American industry, due to the financial burden it provides.

Environmentalists and many nation states are denouncing the use of coal. On the other hand, it is a relatively inexpensive means of energy and is why so many developing countries are claiming their right to use it.

In this two-part article series, we are going to discuss different aspects of coal production and its role in energy generation in different regions of the world. We will also try to discern the future of this sedimentary rock.

Paris Agreement: The Pact for Ultimate Extinction of the Coal Industry

The Paris Agreement is a treaty on climate change within the UN conventions and has 195 nation states as its signatories. The agenda of the agreement is to devise global and nationwide policies to decrease the greenhouse gas emission. The major goal of cutting down greenhouse emission is to keep the global temperature rise within two degrees Celsius by the end of this century.

It is a no-brainer that the cumulative greenhouse emissions can’t be reduced without dropping and decreasing the use of coal as the energy source. That’s where a conflict develops that we are going to discuss later.  

According to the Paris agreement, the developing countries are going to get coal completely out of their power generation equation by 2050. Meanwhile, developed countries will do the same by 2030. However, this is what will happen in an ideal scenario. By taking into account the current status of the global coal industry, it looks like the majority of signatories might not be able to cut down their coal use and greenhouse footprint within the given timeframe.

China: The Biggest Player in the Coal Sector at the Moment

China has earned the status of a global power player through its relentless economic growth. Emerging Asian economies including India and China are the main reasons behind the increased coal demand in the last two decades. Today, coal is powering a major part of the industrial growth in China. The country accounts for half of all the global coal consumption.    

China is using coal so aggressively that its demand has peaked earlier than expected. Coal consumption experienced a steady decline between 2013 and 2016. However, the rebound in 2017 has raised the concerns that instead of declining coal consumption will remain in a plateau phase.

Amid the falling prices of renewable energy alternatives and increasing dependence on shale gas among many thriving economies, China is not willing to take any risks. The country sticks to conventional energy generated from coal instead of experimenting with alternatives to rule out any compromise on its steady economic growth.  

Europe is on the Verge of Coal Phase Out

While China is still capitalizing on coal use, many European economies are on the course of its phase-out. For instance, France has emerged as the most responsible and ambitious country in the context of cutting down the use of coal. The country has already shifted its primary energy dependence from coal to other sources and pledged to go completely coal-free in the next two years.

The UK, the first country to set up a coal-fired power plant, might set an example of becoming one of the first few countries to become coal-free. The UK used coal-free energy for nearly 1000 hours (approximately 42 days) last year.

This growing independence from coal power suggests that the UK will easily reach the phase-out stage in the set timeframe by 2025. Many other countries in the region are also following in Britain’s footsteps. For instance, 10 EU members have promised to achieve the coal phase out before 2030.  

Why Moving Away from Coal Looks so Easy in Europe?

There are multiple reasons why the energy transition from coal to other sources in Europe seems really attainable.

Collapsing Cost of Renewable Energy

In the UK and many other European countries, the cost of renewable energy has dropped to a level where it has become cheaper than the conventional energy generation (by coal or gas). The trend of dropping prices continues as more players are foraying into the sector.

Mounting Cost of Maintenance

There are many coal-fired power plants in the UK and Australia that have completed their operating life. They are due for replacement in the next decade or so. Setting up a coal power project from scratch entails a huge investment with really sluggish ROI. The same monetary sources can be harnessed in transitional fuel and renewable sources to fulfill functional demands and as well to meet the greenhouse cut down targets.  

It is also important to note that nearly half of all the European coal-fired power plants are loss-making and experts believe that this number will be doubled in the next decade. With such a bleak scenario, it looks very imminent that Europe will grow out of coal use rather soon.  [To be continued in Part 2]

Factors Behind Undervalued Silver

Close up of Silver CoinsSilver is perhaps the most overlooked precious metal, as most people tend to focus more on gold and platinum. However, it has most of the same properties as gold, and even offers important technological and electronic applications.  

The first reported mining of silver took place in 3,000 BC in the regions where Turkey and Greece are located. Silver was first used as a currency in the form of coins in Greece around 400 BC, but it was the Spanish conquests of South America that saw a drastic shift in silver production, which lead to three countries, Mexico, Peru and Bolivia producing over 85%of the world’s supply.  

Demand for Silver

Silver is one of the most versatile metals in the world and is used in many applications. It is the second-most tensile and malleable metal after gold. A single ounce of silver can be molded into 8,000 feet of wire.

Industrial and technological usage account for over half of the demand for silver annually which is due to its versatile nature. Here are some applications which depend on silver:  

Industrial Applications

Silver is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity which makes it viable for use in many electrical applications. It is the primary element used in the production of solar panels. The metal is also heavily used in the automobile sector.

Jewelry

Few metals are better suited for jewelry than silver, which is what drives up demand in this sector. Shiny and resilient, the metal is quite easily molded into shapes, requires less upkeep and can last a long time.

Coins

Silver was once the most widely used form of currency in the shape of coins. It was used globally as an accepted medium of exchange until it was phased out gradually in the 19th Century.

Silverware

Silver has been the standard bearer for decor and cutlery since the 14th Century. Silverware lasts for generations and does not corrode.

Is Silver Undervalued

While gold netted a decent return of 13% in 2017, silver gave out a consistently negative return. Over the course of the last seven years, the price of silver has dropped significantly from $35 an ounce in 2011 to $14 an ounce in 2018.

Even if silver is not in the same category of precious metals such as gold, the demand and supply forces dictate that the price should be much higher, especially because of its high demand in industrial usage and a weak dollar. This meant that all commodities gave a decent return except silver.

Here are some possible reasons as to why the value of silver should be higher than the current market price.

Strong Demand

Silver has many different applications and some analysts suggest that price is artificially low. Each year, new innovations are discovered regarding the usage of silver because of its unique chemical properties. Applications from biotech to electronics all use silver and there is a concern that there is not enough silver left to fulfill all the demand.

Supply Deficiency

The production of silver has struggled to meet with the surging demand. In 2017 alone, the supply of silver fell short by 32.5 million ounces, while the year before, the shortage was recorded to be 17.14 million ounces.

Despite this shortfall in supply, the price further decreased for the given years which goes against the basic economic principle of demand and supply: prices rise when demand increases and supply reduces. This led market analysts to speculate that silver was undervalued, as prices remained low even as demand outpaced supply.

The Gold-Silver Ratio

The gold-silver ratio is a measurement of how many ounces of silver does it take to purchase an ounce of gold. Historically the average of this ratio has always been 12:1. This means it takes 12 ounces of silver to buy 1 ounce of gold. The current ratio is 83:1 implying that the market price of silver is massively undervalued.

Reasons to Buy Silver

Silver appears to be a great buy for investors at the moment because of it being relatively underpriced as compared to other metals; however, there isn’t a lot of capital tied up in silver compared to gold. Furthermore silver can meet small financial needs in case of an emergency as it can be easily broken down into smaller denominations. Also silver coins and bars can be sold almost anywhere in the world.

As world inventories of silver have fallen thanks to a surging demand and a falling supply, a fact has been established from data observation over the past fifty years. Since silver is a small market, small money movements have a great impact on price which implies high volatility. A great volatility means that silver can fall more than gold in bearish markets but the opposite stands true for bull markets.

With observation and a little knowledge, you can clock in at the right time to buy silver when it is at an all-time low currently and reap in the profits when prices take off. As of the writing of this article, the price of silver is $15.31.

One of the biggest banks on Wall Street, JPMorgan identified this opportunity in 2011 by buying silver in great numbers. Reports of the bank having accumulated more than 600 million ounces of physical silver at their warehouse, implies a changing trend. Silver prices appear to be at an all-time low and a bank on Wall Street accumulating a huge stash of the metal is not for nothing.  

Commodities are all priced in dollars and depreciation in USD means that the prices of all commodities are rising, except silver. With a massive hoard of silver in their warehouse, JPMorgan is likely to have predicted a spike in the price of silver much quicker than the rest of us.

Earth’s Oldest Rock Found on the Moon

The Moon RockA rock from Earth on the moon! How can this be? Aliens? Well, not so fast, as there is a logical explanation as to how this happened.

Let’s start with a little history of the Apollo space program. The objective of the program was to facilitate human landings on the Moon as well as the astronaut’s safe return. The program consisted of six missions, namely Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15 16 and 17 (the ascending numbering is in the chronological order).   

The Apollo 14 Mission went to the moon in 1971 and explored its Cone Crater. The astronauts on the excruciation also brought some rocks, which were arbitrarily picked from the crater.  All the lunar specimens brought back to the Earth have been inspected and studied to not only understand planet Earth’s lone natural satellite but also the planet itself. Scientists have also been studying them in connection with the evolution of our own planet.

In one such study, astronauts have put forward some amazing inference regarding one of the lunar relics collected by the Apollo 14 team. According to the team of geologists and astronauts analyzing the specimens brought by the Apollo 14 mission, one of the rock specimens was actually a four-billion-year-old chunk from planet Earth!

If this deduction is further established in the future, then this specimen will easily become Earth’s oldest rock.  You may be wondering how on earth (pun intentional) a rock from this planet ended up on the moon. Before your mind starts weaving conspiracy theories regarding extraterrestrial phenomena, we are going to burst the bubble of how this terrestrial rock ended up on the moon, leading us to an astonishing tale of this stone ’s journey from the Earth to the moon and back.

An Asteroid or Comet Impact: The Initial Point of This Journey

Billions of years ago, when life hadn’t materialized on Earth, the collision of large asteroids and comets with our planet was pretty common. Scientists believe that this terrestrial rock ended up on the moon, due to such impact.

According to their hypothesis, a large comet or asteroid collided with Earth that resulted in the splatter of rocks from the Earth’s crust into the outer space, similar to splashes from a water-filled glass when an ice cube hits its surface.

These rocky splashes scattered into outer space and some of them landed on the Moon. It is important to mention that the moon was three times closer to the Earth then it is now. On the moon, these Earth specimens eventually got mixed up and buried with other lunar substances.

Why Scientists Are So Sure About the Terrestrial Origin of the Stone?

This is the first time when scientists have made such an astounding claim regarding any lunar specimen. Moreover, they are quite confident of the veracity of their hypothesis. The main reason for this confidence is the presence of mineral traces in the rock.

Geological Makeup of the Moon is Free of Minerals

Apollo 14 Saturn V rocket blasting off
Apollo 14 Saturn V rocket lifts off for the moon

The geological studies about the lunar crust have shown that it’s underneath environment is not suitable for the formation of minerals like the inner layers of the Earth’s crust. Scientists believe that minerals might be part of the core of the moon and they are really sure that the sample in question is not from that innermost layer of the natural satellite.  

Zircon, Feldspar, and Quartz Are Present in the Rock

Scientists have identified traces of zircon, feldspar, and quartz in the rock. This discovery is the foundation of an hypothesis that this rock has splashed on the moon from the Earth. These minerals are fairly common within the Earth’s crust. However, no other lunar specimen contains any minerals, let alone these three distinctive gem minerals. It will be fitting to have a brief discussion of these three minerals.  

Zircon: As the name suggests, zircon is the silicate compound of the zirconium element. Some fine specimens of this stone are used as diamond simulants. From transparent options to purple and pink, zircon has an entire array of natural colors that depends on the type of impurity it contains. Some zircon specimens also contain radioactive traces. Such specimens undergo the process of metamictization before the gemological faceting and processing.

Feldspar: This tectosilicate mineral makes up more than 41% of the Earth’s crust in the form of many sub-minerals. From typical rock-like structures to gems such as olivine, a whole range of unique mineral specimens are part of feldspar family. Scientists are yet to disclose which type of feldspar traces have been detected on that terrestrial-lunar rock.

Quartz: Quartz is one of the most abundant minerals present in the Earth’s crust. It has many different uses. Some fine quartz crystals are used in the manufacturing of ornamental items. On the other hand, it is also used in many electronic and mechanical devices due to its piezoelectric properties. On Earth, it is found in nearly every mineral environment. But on the moon, there is no sign of this mineral at all.

The Possible Explanation

The Cone crater from where the Apollo 14 team picked that stone was created some 26 million years ago. Craters are formed when small celestial bodies collide with planetary bodies in high velocities. So, the impact that created the Cone crater actually resulted in the excavation of rocks buried under the lunar surface. The Apollo 14 team just picked one of those excavated rocks among which one had terrestrial mineral traces.

Pre-Lunar Journey of the Stone

Scientists believe that the rock with all its mineral traces was created approximately 20 kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface. According to their studies, the Earth’s crust was the budding ground of mineral formation four billion years ago.

This discovery has also given traction to another conjecture that the entire Earth’s crust had a similar composition with traces of different minerals before the manifestation of biological life on the planet. However, this theory doesn’t have much logical backing in its favor to be taken as a serious scientific assertion.

Rarest of the Rare: Unique Gemstones of the World

Alexandrite Mineral
Alexandrite (variety of chrysoberyl)

In all the naturally occurring substances, gemstones catch our attention the most. Due to their color, shapes, sizes and textures, gemstones are intrinsically rare and always an eyecatcher. And among all the elite and rare stone types, there are some which are considered as the rarest due to their scarcity of nature.

Let’s find out some details about these gemstones that are the rarest of the rare.

Alexandrite: Emerald by Day, Ruby by Night

Named after the Russian tsar Alexander-II, Alexandrite belongs to the family of Chrysoberyl family. It was first found in the Ural Mountain range in Russia in early 18th century. Due to some digression from Chrysoberyl minerals, it became one of the rarest gemstones on the face of the earth. Alexandrite is famous for exhibiting hues of emerald and ruby when seen in the presence of light and darkness respectively.

When it shines under different light sources, it appears with different shades of green, magenta and blue which clearly indicate that Alexandrite possesses splendid color features. The impurities of iron, titanium and chromium are supposed to be the reason why it stands alone among all the other Chrysoberyl gemstones.

Tanzanite: A Gift from Foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro 

This gemstone belongs to the family of zoisite gemstones with blue color. The rarity of this stone can be understood by the fact that the only known deposit of this stone is found in the foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro in Northern Tanzania. Therefore, this zoisite gem is even named after the country.

The bluish-purple stones are found and mined in decades, and therefore it is considered rarer than diamonds. Tanzanite also exhibits different hues under different crystal orientations and light conditions.

Red Diamonds: A Rare Tale of Romance

The combination of red color and diamond stone can be the ultimate gesture of love. Red diamonds are considered to be the fanciest and rarest diamonds. Unlike other fancy diamonds which get their color from different impurities, diamonds get red hue due to a rare bend in its atomic structure known as plastic deformation. There are very few red diamonds in the world (some estimates suggest that only 30 diamonds exist with such color formation).

Grandidierite: Madagascar’s Another Natural Offering

Grandidierites are extremely rare gemstones only found in very few places such as Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Namibia. They were first discovered in Madagascar in the early 19th century by a French mineralogist and named after Alfred Grandidier who is thought to be the first authority on the natural history of the region.

Grandidierite comes in bluish green color patterns, shades which come from the tinge of iron impurities in it. They come in orthorhombic crystal structures. The typical rare Grandidierite appears completely transparent.

Poudretteite: An Exquisite Pink Gem

Poudretteite was first discovered in Canada and named after the family which operates the quarry from which this stone was discovered. Even after more than 50 years, it can only be found in two locations in Canada and Myanmar which makes this gemstone incredibly rare.

The color of Poudretteite depends on the optical phenomenon in which different the color appears when observed at different angles. However, Poudretteite shows light pink and purple hues mostly. Manganese is the color giving element present in Poudretteite, so the color saturation depends on the amount of Manganese present in the stone’s crystal structure.

Benitoite:  A Californian Rarity

Benitoite is a rare gemstone that is extracted from the only and limited deposit near San Benito River in California. It was discovered in 1907. Benitoite comes in blue and purple shades and glows like blue chalk when put under UV light.

Due to its unavailability, Benitoite is not used as a typical gemstone in jewelry items. It is almost impossible to find in the open market and is usually part of rare gem collections.

Musgravite: Distinctive among all the Taaffeite

Musgravite is a rare oxide gemstone belonging to the family of Taaffeite gemstones. Musgravite was first discovered in the Musgrave Range of South Australia. It is very difficult to differentiate them from all the other Taaffeite stones and only an expert can do this. Musgravite exists in grey, mauve, grey purple and light olive green shades.

Emeralds: A Part of Ancient Religious and Cultural History of The World

red diamond 3d rendering
Red Diamond Emerald

Since ancient times, the Emerald has caught the interest and fascination of humans. Like many other gifts of nature found in lush green shades, real emeralds are also found in stunning green color. There are other green gems such as peridot and tourmaline but none are as famous, beautiful and rightfully expensive as emeralds. In this article, we will try to shed some light on the historical significance of the stone. Let’s start with its name origin and some ancient history.   

Emerald’s name origin

Historians are agreed on the fact that the word ‘Emerald’ is the distorted form of a Greek word ‘smaragdus’ which means ‘green’.

Trace back of emerald in the history

The first mining of emerald was reported in the ancient Egypt dating back to 300 BC. In Egypt, emerald was revered as a precious gemstone.  Cleopatra, the last ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt considered the manifestation of beauty, was fond of emerald and it is used as part of many of her royal adornments.

History also suggests that Roman were also fond of this magnificent gemstone. According to the writings of famous Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, in ancient Rome people stared into emerald to relieve tediousness and exhaustion.  

In the following discussion, we will try to look into the importance of emerald in different cultural and religious symbolism.

Emerald: Equally loved by ancient gods

In many religious beliefs, offering emerald to the spiritual deity results in different rewards for the people. For instance, Hindus were the belief that people who offer emerald to the god Krishna become high in heaven and god rewards these generous offerings with the knowledge of soul and eternity.

There is another historical trace of people offering emeralds to their gods.  A Spanish historian from the 16th century AD, who had extensively researched on the north of South America, also hinted about the emerald offering of the natives to their gods. According to him, people used to burn emeralds and gold before the depictions of the Moon and Sun which are considered the highest divinities.

Emerald used as a rewarding gift to gods implies that not only humans but gods were also fond of this gemstone.

 

Emerald: A stone embedded in the breastplate of Aaron

The breastplate of Aaron, which is discussed in the Old Testament, had different gemstones embedded in it. Scholars are still debating the type of those gemstones because revision to the original text has changed the names and categorization of the stones. Apart from that, the linguistic changes through the course of time have also altered the names of different gemstones.

It has been cited that a greenstone was used in the breastplate of Aaron. It could be the real green emerald, green feldspar or any other green stone but historical indications are stronger towards the use of emerald. Emerald began to be mined near the ancient site of Nubia, Egypt before the era in which the breastplate got made.

The Peruvian goddess made of emerald

In the 15th century, when Spanish kingdom was roaring around the South America, people of the city of Manta in present-day Peru used to worship a goddess named Umina. The goddess was made of an emerald of the size of an ostrich egg. It was displayed to the public only on feast days by the priest.

According to their dogmatic belief, followers can worship the goddess by only bringing her daughters. Small size emeralds were called the daughters of the Umina. When the city was captured and conquered by the Spaniards, they found plenty of emeralds there however they failed to trace the emerald goddess Umina.

Spaniards also waste many of these precious gemstones in order to determine their originality. They smashed emeralds on anvil because they were of the thought that original emerald is the hardest gemstones and it can withstand this smashing.

Emerald Symbolism embedded in depiction of mystic and mysterious cities

There are many tales and folklore in India which talks about the mysterious cities and forts with walls, facets and entire temples made of gold and other precious elements. There are paintings which depict these cities and their features. According to the pictorial depictions of those wealthy cities, leaves of plants and trees have dripping emeralds and rubies.  

From the above discussion, it is quite clear that emerald has always been an important part of different historical religious and cultural reference spread all across the world.

 

Formation of Gemstones

Valuable gemstones are extracted from the earth’s core and include mineral rocks, diamonds and stones in a variety of colors;, for example, rubies, emeralds and sapphires. While the diamond is still the world’s most precious and well-sought after stone among all, we can see a rise in demand for various other gemstones as well. Not that they were not valued any time before, but in recent times, people have shifted their interests towards gemstones other than diamond, and in fact, most of the engagement and wedding rings now hold a semi precious gemstone in center.  However, just as their demand and value has been on the rise, so is the need to authenticate their originality.

Almost all gemstones are found in the crust of earth. However, there are two which are found deep below in earth’s mantle: Peridot and diamond. There are kimberlitic pipes below the earth which is the main passage for diamonds to surface up. Through these pipes, molten magma flows and as it reaches the surface, it collects foreign rocks known as xenoliths on its passage. Diamond is one of the rocks, which are assimilated on the way and brought up the surface through volcanic eruptions.

Igneous rocks

Igneous rocks are those that are formed when the molten magma beneath the earth cools down and starts to crystallize. Igneous rocks include two further types further: intrusive, which are formed beneath the surface when the magma cools down, and extrusive, which are formed when lava cools down above the surface of earth.

At the time of cooling, there are many minerals present which starts to combine and form a crystallized structure. This is how gemstones are formed. Environment, cooling time, pressure, temperature – all these factors play an important role in forming each of the gemstone. Larger gemstones will be formed if the cooling process is slower. Diamonds, spinel, Peridot, quartz, moonstone, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, citrine, and amethyst – these all are the most common types of igneous rocks.

Sedimentary cycle

Sedimentary cycle is the second most important process in the rock formation. Rocks formed through this cycle are not actually formed, but rather found. Due to the process of weathering over the time, many rocks are washed down with rain, wind and river and deposited into the sea or riverbanks. There, they keep accumulating along with other organic and inorganic material mixing into it, such as plants, mud, shells. As the time passes, these mixtures are compressed and compacted to form hard rocks. Most of the time, those rocks will be found in sedimentary rocks that have been originally weathered from their parent rocks, which then can be igneous or metamorphic in nature. Common rock minerals found in these sedimentary deposits include Beryl, Opal, Turquoise, Malachite, Azurite, Chrysoprase, Chrysocolla.

Third source of gemstones are the metamorphic rocks. As the name suggests, these rocks are formed when already existing rocks goes through a change process due to pressure changes or changes in temperature. The process is called recrystallization, since during this process, molecular structure of these rocks is broken down and restructured, forming a completely new rock, with same basic composition but different structure. Some of the common metamorphic rocks are garnet, tanzanite, sapphire, ruby, kyanite and emerald.

Top Five Largest Diamonds in the World

“Diamonds” by whatleydude is licensed under CC BY 2.0

What is it that we have not seen or heard about diamonds? From being a girl’s best friend to a creating a political fiasco, diamonds never fail to be the center of attention. They have potential to capture anyone’s eye; especially the bigger stones.  People are still fascinated by diamonds as they were in ancient times. Promising strength due to their non-breakable nature, diamonds are also a symbol of love and commitment.

When it comes to diamonds, size is a huge attraction and increases the value of the stone. Here is a list of the top 5 largest diamonds in the world.

Sergio

Weighing 3167 carats, Sergio is the largest rough diamond in the world. It was discovered from Brazil in the year 1893 and is one of the rare black diamonds that still have scientists debating about the origin of this category of the stone. It has mythical stories attached to it and is thought to hail from meteoric origins; but regardless of anything being said, Sergio enjoys the title of being the largest diamond of the world.

The Cullinan

The Cullinan weights a magnificent 3106.75 Carats and ranks second in the list of the largest diamonds in the world. It is famous around the world due to numerous reasons. Weighing 1.37 lbs when discovered, it made a striking gift for Edward II, the then King of United Kingdom. Later on, the Cullinan was taken to Amsterdam where it was cut into 9 large and as many as 96 small gems. Today, it values to be an estimated $2 million.

Excelsior Diamond

Excelsior Diamond had the honor of being the largest diamond of the world until 1905, when The Cullinan was discovered. It was founded in the year 1893 in Jagers Fontein Mine. Later on it was cut into 10 stones with the largest one weighing 69.68 carats. It is a beautifully stunning white diamond that reflects a hint of blue as well.

Star of Sierra Leone

Discovered in 1972, this beautiful stone made it to the hands of Harry Winston, a famous American jeweler. Since it was in rough form, this magnificent diamond was cut into 17 smaller gems, some of which were used to craft the famous Star of Sierra Leone brooch.

Incomparable Diamond

Incomparable weighs 890 carats and is a discovery of 1989. Found in Congolese by a young girl, it was years until experts cut the magnificent stone into smaller gems. The final result was a uniquely triangular shaped diamond in the shade of yellow and brown. Most recently, it was up for auction on Ebay in 2002. Surprisingly, no one bought this beautiful piece.

Gemstones have high value due to their size, shape, color, cut, and weight. In case of diamonds, it enjoys a very special status that has a abstract meaning and worth as well.

Four Cs of Diamond Grading

The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) was the first to implement a universal diamond grading system. Before 1953, there was no agreed upon standard for judging diamonds. The founder of GIA, Robert M. Shipley, created the Four C’s grading system in 1953 which became the international standard for determining diamond quality. The Four C’s stand for color, clarity, cut, and carat weight.

Color

Gem-quality diamond color evaluation is based on a lack of color. The most perfect diamond is colorless and has no hue. The scale of color starts with D, the rarest, and continues on to the letter Z. Many of these color differences are extremely subtle and are not seen by the untrained eye. However, these differences can be quite big when it comes to a diamond’s quality and price. Excellent value diamonds have a color grade of D, E, F, G, and H. These are also best set in platinum or white gold.

Clarity

Diamonds are a result of carbon being exposed to intense heat and pressure under the earth’s mantle for over a billion years. This long process can add internal and external imperfections called inclusions and blemishes, respectively. The number, size, nature, and position of these imperfections affects the clarity of the stone. The clarity scale has six categories: flawless (FL), internally flawless (IF), very, very slightly included (VVS1 and VVS2), very slightly included (VS1 and VS2), slightly included (SI1 and SI2) and included (I1, I2, and I3). FL diamonds account for less than 1% of the current diamond supply while it accounts for less than 3%, these are the highest valued diamonds.

Cut

The cut refers to proportions, and not shape. Diamonds are the only naturally occurring gemstone with a refractive index greater than 2, meaning they are very sparkly, this sparkle is called fire in the gem industry. A diamond’s cut will affect its fire, brightness, and scintillation. The cut scale contains five grades: excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor. An excellent cut allows light to enter the stone and disperse it properly throughout the diamond, reflecting back through the top. When a diamond’s cut is too shallow or too deep, the light can escape through the bottom of the stone.

Carat

Many think that a diamond carat refers to size, when it actually refers to weight. As carat weight increases, so does the rarity and price of a diamond. A metric carat is defined as 200 mg. Each carat can be divided into 100 points. This allows precise measurement to the hundredth decimal place. A 25 point diamond weighs 0.25 carats. Many times, a diamond can look bigger but be a lower carat based on shape and size. Since prices are based on carat, one can usually get a better deal for a diamond that ends in .9 carats. A 2.9 carat stone can look bigger than a 3 carat stone and cost less, simply based on size.